Introduction

The situation selected is that of a care coordinator in the community health clinic responsible for implementing a program to improve adherence to treatment recommendations such as diet, exercise and medication for patients with type 2 diabetes. To attain the set goals and objectives, it is important to know the difference between leadership and management. The same difference also applies in their functions and competent skills (Wise, 2007). While leadership provides encouragement, direction and inspiration towards team motivation, management involves coordinating the workforce together with the available resources to attain the same goals. However, leadership and management are inseparable since they work hand in hand. A good leader requires both leadership and management skills (Triplitt, 2012).

Diabetes is a worldwide issue that is becoming a threat if not handled carefully. If not controlled, the fats and glucose accumulate in the body system of an individual thus causing different levels of damage. Diabetes can be either type 1 or type 2. This paper discusses type 2 diabetes and different recommendations to treatment. Type 2 diabetes is a major occurrence associated with obesity, old age and sometimes heredity factors (Wise, 2007). Medical practitioners have proved that this condition is preventable by engaging in physical activities, healthy dieting and weight loss. In addition, there are oral and insulin medications available for all patients. Among adults, it is shocking that diabetes is the major cause of kidney failure, blindness and limb amputation. Statistics also show that chances of death for diabetic patients are high compared to those of similar age but without diabetes. The issues of premature death and disability are inevitable when it comes to diabetes. For this reason, it is important for the society as a whole to take up the specific roles that would help the affected individuals. This begins with the leaders, families affected by diabetes, institutions such as schools, churches and hospitals and the government (Siu, 1998).

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Leadership Activities Associated with Goal Accomplishment

To prevent type 2 diabetes, leaders have taken up the role of establishing support group programs for individuals with diabetes. These groups encourage and help patients with diabetes to develop good eating habits, provide skills of coping with the disease while improving their physical levels. When patients adopt this lifestyle while getting support from the society, it is possible to control the different effects associated with diabetes. Leaders also set up research facilities with experts who conduct studies on diabetes causes, prevention, solutions and recommendations. The rest of the community and other health care systems that interact with diabetic patients share this information thereafter (Wise, 2007).

In addition, leaders ensure availability of health education programs that educate the society on diabetes. The information passed on to the society explains the different causes of diabetes in individuals, the risk factors that are mostly affected by age and family history. They also educate the society on symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes so that individuals have awareness of the disease before it results in more damage. The education programs also discuss prevention and management mechanisms that are less harmful to the affected individuals and their surroundings (Triplitt, 2012).

Leadership Competencies

Leadership competencies consist of different skills, talents and abilities of leaders that enable them drive others to successful goal achievements. Value and ethics is the main competency of a good leader. Leaders with this disease mostly have respect and integrity. With regard to diabetes, the leaders use this to ensure health institutions and their staff members work for the good of the patients (Wise, 2007). The other competency is strategic thinking. A leader with strategy is innovative and full of ideas. In this context, one is able to come up with strategic plans that would guide towards management and prevention of diabetes. Such ideas include establishment of education programs that inform individuals on issues of diabetes, ensuring availability of resources that are adequate for diabetes management and provision of health facilities in areas affected by diabetes. The other key competency is engagement. Leaders must lead by example, and it is at this point that they ensure individuals in the society work together towards eliminating and preventing diabetes. It is possible for the leaders to be part of the education and training programs as a way of encouraging those they lead. Excellence in management also comes in as a competency. Here, the leaders are able to manage people, funds, resources and all activities involved in the endeavor of preventing diabetes. This way, the set goals and objectives remain achievable, and many of the diabetic patients in the society are protected from premature death and disability (Jenkins, 2012).

Management Activities Associated with Goal Accomplishment

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The main functions of management are planning, organization, staff selection, coordination and control. In the case of diabetes, effective management always involves problem solving techniques and achievement of set goals and objectives. As much as no cure is available for type 2 diabetes, medical practitioners in this field have proved that the disease can be managed through medication and lifestyle modifications of the affected individuals (Wise, 2007). The main aim of managing diabetes is to ensure the blood glucose levels of the individual are close to normal state. Effective management must also be associated with needs of the patients and the circumstances of the disease. This state is always between (4-6) mmol/L and usually helps to prevent long-term and short-term complications.

Planning in this context involves setting goals and objectives, which in this case are managing diabetes conditions worldwide. Here, the key participants affected by diabetes condition directly or indirectly are identified. These include patients, health institutions and families of the affected (Wise, 2007). The main goals set at this point are for the purposes of managing diabetes to a certain level based on the available resources. The organizing bit of diabetes management involves assigning tasks to different players. To begin with, individuals with diabetes have the responsibility of changing their eating habits and adopting the regular exercise habit. Medical experts, on the other hand, have the role of taking care of the patients and administering medication.

With progress levels of the disease, the patients receive tablet prescriptions that help in the control of the glucose levels in the blood. In most cases, the tablets administered to patients work in conjunction with the healthy diet and constant physical exercise of the body and not substituted for these two (Wise, 2007). The other management activity towards diabetes prevention and maintenance is use of insulin. The introduction of insulin use is made when the patients body reduces insulin production in the body. It is also important for individuals to monitor their blood glucose levels through regular checkups. It will in turn help to determine the effectiveness of modes of treatment and any other medication administered by the doctors. The most important form of management is following instructions of the doctors. It is essential for health institutions to provide patient education on diabetes from initial diagnosis stage to later times. The successful management is based on the coordination and control of the key participants and the resources available (Triplitt, 2012).

Management Competencies

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One of the key management competencies is communication. It can be verbal or nonverbal depending on the applicable situation. A good manager listens to others with full attention and thereafter attends to their concerns. In the context of diabetes, the leaders must pay attention to the diabetes issue and thereafter help the society in deriving solutions. The other skills of management involve problem-solving techniques (Wise, 2007). The problem at hand is diabetes, the effects associated with it and impacts on individuals and the society in general. It is possible for the leader to seek advice from others on how to approach the issue and provide solutions. Such solutions may be education programs and training on diabetes and the establishment of facilities that help in the treatment and management of the disease (Macleod, 2012).

Support from Others

The issue of diabetes is not just a family or community one, but it affects everyone else in a particular state, region or environment. Apart from leaders and family, diabetes requires external support from different entities. The first external support that is important is from the state or government. The governments in most countries like the United States set up programs such as National Diabetes Prevention Programs (NDPP), which brings evidence-based lifestyle prevention and intervention aspects to the surrounding communities. Such information is available for all diabetes health practitioners, employers and insurers (Siu, 1998).

Other participants in the diabetes programs are health organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this organization is to conduct research studies on diabetes, reach out to communities that do not have such aid and provide education programs and curriculums on the disease (Wise, 2007). Such organizations reach out to all communities and nations through their governments by providing medication and other facilities needed. Other forms of support come from donors from foreign countries and corporate institutions such as banks and industries. In most cases, donors provide funds used to purchase equipment and facilities for managing diabetes. The funds can be applicable to put up facilities such as medical centers that accommodate the patients and set up suitable environment for managing their disease. The funds are necessary to start education programs and training on diabetes management expertise.

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