Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms of different origin and have specific means of spread. Among the mechanisms of transfer of infections are the one via air, via touch contact, alimentary, sexual and other. Each of them leads to the contact with the source of infection and further insertion of the agent into a vulnerable organism. Moreover, some diseases have a latency period, which is characterized with the absence of symptoms after the insertion of the infection. However, after the end of this period the infection may cause a disease in case the organism lacks the appropriate defense. This paper investigates the case of a male patient aged 22, who has the symptoms of mononucleosis. It investigates the type of the disease, develops the appropriate clinical course, and discusses treatment options and follow-up activities. In addition, the paper provides necessary education guidelines for the patient in order to prevent the spread of infection along with the repetition of disease. This information is critical because it allows managing the negative outcomes of the infection along with raising the patients awareness of the threats of mononucleosis.
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One needs presenting the case before providing the possible clinical course and treatment options for the patient. Thus, the patient complains of fatigue, aching joints, and a sore throat. The patient describes his condition during the past week as feeling flu-like, and recent symptoms were aggravated in the morning. The initial examination by the FNP revealed that the patient has swollen lymph nodes and elevated temperature. Further laboratory results were unremarkable whereas a mono spot test was negative. The patient was released, but the next day his condition deteriorated because he had further elevated temperature, increased pain from the sore throat, and generalized aches.
The visual symptoms provide evidence that the patient has mononucleosis because fatigue, aching joints, swollen lymph nodes and elevated temperature characterize this infection (Hurt & Tammaro, 2007). At the same time, mono spot test was negative, which can raise a doubt that this infection was caused by its usual agent, which is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This result may raise doubts regarding the source of infection because 10% of EVB-infected are heterophile-negative whereas there are non-EVB causes of infections such as Cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6 (Hurt & Tammaro, 2007). However, further blood tests allowed stating that this case is an infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV. The reason for this assumption are the results of serological tests, which reveal the infection status along with the analysis of other pathogens. Thus, CMV IgM quant
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Moreover, one should propose an adequate treatment strategy, which is based on several options. Each of them varies depending on the acuteness of the disease and the state of the immune system of the patient. Furthered, one should take into account the possible need for the patients study or work activity. Thus, in the cases of moderate and mild illness infectious mononucleosis may not require treatment (Bennett & Domachowske, 2015) and can be mitigated by the immune system of the patient (Odumade, Hogquist & Balfour, 2011). In this case, the physician may propose increasing the number of breaks during ones work along with the increase of fluid intake in order to provide persistent hydration. Additionally, there might be a need for the intake of antipyretics and analgesics along with limitation of sports activities (Odumade, Hogquist & Balfour, 2011). Along with this, mononucleosis may lead to the development of life-threatening conditions such as potentially lethal lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis (Odumade, Hogquist & Balfour, 2011). In such cases, there is a need for the control of symptoms with the help of steroids and corticosteroids. Such treatment will manage complications such as impending airway obstruction, autoimmune anemia, and autoimmune thrombocytopenia (Odumade, Hogquist & Balfour, 2011). Similarly, the patient may mange his condition with the help of antiviral drugs such as acyclovir. However, potentially serious cases of EBV disease require administration of monoclonal anti-CD20 and chemotherapy (Odumade, Hogquist & Balfour, 2011). Therefore, the application of a concrete treatment option depends on the condition of the patient.
The success of the applied treatment options should be monitored by means of personal admission of the patient and lab tests. Thus, personal admissions are required every day throughout the first week of the patients admission and twice a week throughout the upcoming month. The laboratory tests require repetition on a monthly basis in order to monitor the progress and efficacy of the implemented treatment strategies. Moreover, it is important to provide adequate education to the patient regarding ones behavior in order to avoid reoccurrence of the disease. The patient should not use the public appliances, which may lead to the spread of saliva. Similarly, he should practice safe sex and avoid long kisses with unknown individuals. These measures are important because EBV diseases are typically transmitted through saliva and secretions. Moreover, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle and support ones immune system with vitamins. As a result, the future reoccurrence of the disease is extremely unlikely.
Summarizing the presented information, the paper concludes that the patient has the acute stage of infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV. This suggestion is supported by the clinical evidence such as the condition of the patient and the laboratory analysis of ones blood. Consequently, this diagnosis leads to the development of appropriate strategies of treatment. Thus, in case the patients illness is stably mild or moderate he is administered antiviral drugs, persistent fluid intake and should avoid sports activities and long working sessions. However, in the case ones illness is progressing and causing a life-threatening perspective, he should be administered steroids or corticosteroids, or even monoclonal anti-CD20 and chemotherapy. Such measures would assure successful recovery, which should be monitored on a monthly basis by personal admissions and blood analyses.