Dorothea Orem, remembered for the self-care theory, was born in 1914. Being a Masters degree holder in Nursing, she served in several capacities during her nursing career. She portrayed special abilities and dedication in her duties. Her outstanding performance and service in different nursing fields was recognized. Her efforts and dedication in service delivery saw Dorothea Orem awarded an honorary doctorate degree for her diligence and contribution to the improvement of the nursing field. From her experience in nursing, she came up with a theory of Self-Care. The theory aimed at creating awareness about expectations within a nursing environment by outlining what to be done by nurses and patients. This paper analyzes the basic concepts of Dorothea Orems self-care theory and how concepts of the nursing metaparadigm are defined by the theorist. In addition, the theory examines how the current nursing applies the theory during nursing process.
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Basic Concepts of the Theory
Nursing is a wide profession that brings together people from different regions and cultural set ups. The theory has its foundation laid on a few concepts. Firstly, the theory is based on self-care. Everybody wishes to live a comfortable and healthy life. Self-care calls for and involves simple activities that people partake in their daily lives. These are the things that enable individuals to sustain themselves and lead healthy lives. Human beings need to be keen and concerned with their way of life. They have to be aware of self-care and practice it (Taylor & Renpennin, 2011).
The concept to this theory is self-care agency. Most individuals are aware of self-care but they are not able to practice it. People need to be enabled through awareness programs to boost their ability to practice self-care. Factors that may hinder self-care are addressed through this concept (Renpennin & Susan, 2003). The third is therapeutic self-care demand. People are supposed to change their perception towards self-care and show willingness to take part in the practice. There is a need to identify and establish an action plan that guides individuals on what they are supposed to engage themselves in while practicing self-care. The last concept is self-care requisites. The theory is geared towards ensuring self-care, hence this concept is aimed at looking for and providing the action steps to help achieve self-care.
How the Concepts of the Nursing Metaparadgim Are Defined By the Theorist
Nursing environment is service-oriented and hence it is made up of several factors. These factors are nursing, environment, person, and health. The factors can be defined differently depending on the role they play in nursing. According to the theory, Dorothea Orem had her own definitions for these factors. For instance, she presented nursing as activities that a nurse undertakes willingly and knowingly in order to enable those under his or her control to retain or improve in state (Truglio-Londrigan & Lewenson, 2012). She argues that nursing is an act of helping one to acquire the desired health standards. Nursing is achieved through cooperation of the patient, the nurse, and environment.
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According to the theorist, an environment is a composition of conditions and other facilities that make nursing a success. The environment should be enabling and conducive to both the patient and the nurse for the desired results to be obtained (Rice, 2006). A good environment makes those within to administer their duties effectively and efficiently. Health, as per the Theory, is a state, in which a person is naturally in sound health and all the parts of the body are functioning normally. It is when an individual is without any complications physiologically. Health is a state that human beings desire to be in. Dorothea Orem further defines a person as a complete being that can carry out several functions and is biologically normal. A human being unlike other creatures must have needs for proper development and social conscience.
How the Current Nursing Applies the Theory during Nursing Processes
Nursing process entails identifying challenges facing self-care and establishing why it has not been effective, and thereafter, resolving on how best to improve the practice. The theory has helped a lot in improving the nursing process. Nurses today have understood therapeutic self-care demand. They have incorporated it in the nursing process. Nurses assess the causes of self-care deficit among their clients and analyze them critically before deciding on the care plan to initiate (Callaghan, 2005). Through the theory, nurses have engaged into teaching and guiding the patients on how they can carry out self-care practices. In circumstances, where nurses discover an inadequate self-care agency, they engage the victims into personal development programs to support them and help them understand the need for self-care. Application of the theory in nursing processes is also evident through the establishment of departments offering guidance and directions to people (Dart, 2010). These departments aim at creating awareness to ensure that people get to know the role and importance of self-care in their lives. Through the programs the number of individuals seeking nursing has reduced significantly.
Dorothea Orems theory of self-care has played the major role in nursing. The concepts behind the theory were all focused on ensuring a healthy society. Her definition of nursing and all its components brought about the relation of all those within the nursing community. Self-care is not a one man initiative. People should join hands to ensure a healthy nation. Nurses need to create more awareness among citizens. Therapeutic self-care demand should be encouraged and action plans established to support self-care. Nurses have to keep applying the theory in their nursing processes for it offers solutions to most health issues among people.