Dear Sir,

Due to numerous accidents that have been witnessed in most parts of New Brunswick, New Jersey, I am strongly support the opinion that these accidents can be greatly reduced with the help of pavements. During the last twenty years, drivers visibility and its connection to accidents has been explored. For this particular reason, I think that the city clerk together with the relevant bodies should work towards ensuring that roads are clearly marked. In my opinion, and in the best interest of drivers and pedestrians, it will help to reduce the number of accidents and save more lives. This paper suggests use of longitudinal marking that should be wider than the normal 4-inch standard centerline minimum. It finds its applications in both edge lines and lanes. Use of wider markings will make roads more visible, which will reduce the number of accidents (Sathyanarayanan, Sudhakar, Shankar & Donnell, 34). The use of road markings was successful in some parts of the world, especially in Canada. A recent survey reveals that highway agencies have stated that poor visibility of roads due unclear or unmarked roads and pavements is one of major causes of accidents. Wider markings will, therefore, increase road visibility and avert future road accidents. Based on agency responses and technical literature, wider markings have the following benefits.

They improve long-range detection at night. It is especially helpful for old drivers who may have problems with seeing at night while driving;

They provide comfort for drivers;

They ensure stimulation for peripheral vision;

They improve positioning of lanes as well as performance measures of other drivers.

Patron

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The patron in this project will be the New Jersey federal government. They take care of development projects within their different states. Through the city council, the relevant authorities including the town sheriff should conduct a proper survey on the conditions of the roads, and allocate some money for marking the roads and pavements to ensure proper visibility. It is a massive project that is expected to consume at least 6 billion USD. It is because the affected area is a wide stretch of road that runs into several kilometers. Marking a kilometer of a road costs about one half of 5000 USD. A standard marking should last several years. If quality work is done on the road, then obviously, future accidents will be averted. As you know, this particular road is among the oldest roads in the world. Therefore, it is in the best interest of drivers and other road users to mark the roads as soon as possible. Quality work will ensure that the roads last for a very long time, and serve even for future road users (Montebello, David &Schroeder, 42). It should be done as soon as possible in order not only prevent accidents, but also restore the reputation and beauty of the scenic city. Being among the busiest roads, clear marking will make transportation easier as well as restore some sanity. As you know, there have been numerous proposals and recommendations to have the road clearly marked. With the funding, this can be a reality. A typical width of marking is about 20 cm. It is wide enough so that drivers can clearly make distinctions between lanes as they use the roads. In parts of the world including Denmark, Germany, Hungary, and Iceland, the use of wider lanes prompts the decision to use dashed edge line double widths (Michael, 21). It ensures that drivers maintain visibility while changing the patterns of line. Obviously, better markings of the roads help prevent accidents. The economic implications of wider markings cannot be compared to danger that unmarked or narrowly marked roads poses to drivers and other road users. The reason why the cost may seem quite high is the need to use high quality materials. They are expensive but last longer.

Population

The people who will benefit the most from the marking are drivers and other road users. With proper marking, drivers in New Brunswick will be able to clearly see the road, especially at night and during poor weather conditions. Poor weather conditions can be caused by rain, fog, or mist. It means that reflective materials of high quality should be used in order to make the roads clearly visible at night and during poor weather conditions. To improve visibility, it is recommended to use methyl methacrylate. It has good reflection and absorption capabilities (Sathyanarayanan, Sudhakar, Shankar & Donnell, 34). It serves to ensure that water does not wash away the markings. The arrow and chevron markings are especially important since they can last for a very long time. It ensures that they are used for a long time before any repairs or renovations can be made on the road. However, cost of the markings depends on a number of factors including the type of materials used. Drivers and road users belong to the vulnerable group since they are the ones who suffer from accidents and other losses due to poor visibility at night or when it rains. A traffic lane between motor vehicles and bicycles should be indicated. The main considerations in the pavement markings will be to indicate bike lanes (Montebello, David &Schroeder, 28). It will help motorcyclists and cyclists know where to branch and what lanes to use. The overall goal is to avoid collisions and confusions among different road users. Bicyclists will also be able to recognize the correct paths and keep off the road from motorists since they are likely to be run over without proper and clear markings. The markings will be clearly labeled, so that motorists as well as other road users will be well-informed about crossing maneuvers and turnings ahead of them. Some of the accidents have been attributed to lack of clear signs. For instance, when a motorist is not well-informed about a sharp turn ahead, he/she may swerve off the road causing accidents. Different pavement markings make it easier and safer for bicyclists as they cycle along the pavements. The general markings are used to separate lanes, indicate assigned paths, or correct positions for cyclists and motorists. The manual for Uniform Traffic Control devices makes it easier for road users to have a standard marking for pavement.

Problem

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New Brunswick is an old city located at the heart of New Jersey. It makes the road quite busy, with thousands of motorists using the roads daily to go about their business. In the recent past, there were many accidents that could be prevented. In this regard, I write this proposal believing that as the city boss, you are better positioned to take responsibility and correct the road situation. Most of the markings on the pavements cannot be seen clearly. Motorists have complained severally about it, but much has not been done to correct the situation. Most of the markings are gone. They are faded and are not clearly visible to motorists and other road users. When the weather conditions become extreme, drivers complain that they cannot see the markings clearly. Poor visibility increases the chance of vehicles getting into the lanes of other road users. In fact, most of the accidents in the recent past have been attributed to this. Examples of pavement markings that can be used include identification and striping. They are associated with striping for paved shoulders, bike lanes, lanes turning at intersections, and drainage grates (Graham, Johnny & King, 28). They assist in preventing pavement hazards or any other irregularities. There is a standard guideline that helps improve safety of bicycles. It ensures that the pavement markings are visible, non-skid, and durable. The markings can be made with the help of thermoplastic or paint. Whereas paint is cheaper, it has the tendency to fade easily, therefore, it is not the best option for marking pavements. Thermoplastic lasts longer, but it may be slippery at times. Anyway, it remains the best option for marking pavements. Where thermoplastic is used for bicycle markings, a thin non-skid type is usually preferred. It is because thermoplastic is slippery as mentioned before and bicycles, unlike bigger vehicles, can easily skid over it. It is the reason why it has to be thinner to reduce chances of skidding. The state of Oregon, for instance, has one of the best pavement markings in the world. It has four legend markings that are used in bicycle lanes. Hot thermoplastic is poured in the lanes, so that the cyclists can clearly distinct on which of the lanes they are allocated. Preformed plastic can also be used. In some cases, methyl methacrylate and tape are used. Their use, however, vary according to geography, traffic volumes, weather, bike, and pedestrian counts. The ability to resist skid varies with every type of product. Crushed glass, glass beads, and aggregate can be used to increase resistance to skid. However, the anti-skid particles, sometimes, tend to sick before the hot thermoplastic can cool. Being careful while placing the pavement markings increases their longevity. For instance, it is improper to place markings next to driveways or near far-side stops (Andrady, 47). It prevents wear and tear of tires of vehicles on the roads.

Paradigm

Most of the researches carried out in different parts of the world suggest that thermoplastic is the best material to use in pavement markings. For this reason, they remain the most preferred in pavement markings. Pavement markings together with traffic lights and road signs serve to provide the motorists with important information regarding the directions or traffic. Markings on the pavements serve to divide traffic lanes, mark pedestrian crossings, indicate obstacles, and show when it is safe to pass. They also serve to show turning lanes. Currently, the New Jersey Pavements have no clear pavement markings. It resulted in most of the accidents that could be avoided by ensuring that the pavement markings are clear. Yellow lines are used to separate traffic that moves in opposite directions. White lines are used to separate traffic that moves in the same direction. A solid line placed at the left of a lane means that it is not safe for pedestrians to pass. Broken lines at the left of a lane mean that a pedestrian can pass since the way is clear (Wayne, 9). It has not been clear in the case of roads at New Jersey. Broken lines that are closer and wider than the regular broken are referred to as continuity lines. If one sees the continuity lines on the left, it means that their lanes are ending or exiting and he/she must change lanes or continue to move in the current direction. Continuity lines on the right imply that ones lane is not affected. A stop line implies a single white line painted at an intersection across a road. It shows motorists where they must stop. If there are no stop lines marked at the middle of the road, one is encouraged to make a stop at the crosswalk. If there is no crosswalk, they should stop at the edge of a sidewalk. If a motorist sees no sidewalks, he/she is encouraged to stop at an edge of the next intersection. Crosswalks are marked by parallel lines (two). They are painted across the road. Crosswalks at intersections are usually unmarked. White arrows that are painted on lanes mean that a motorist can only move in the direction indicated by the arrow (Parham, Angelia, Katie, Womack & Hawkins, 40). Crossovers for pedestrians are marked using two white double parallel lines across the road. There are yellow lights to indicate an approaching lane. A motorist is urged to stop right before the line, so that they yield to pedestrians. If the motorists see two solid lines that are painted on road pavements, it guides them away from fixed objects such as concrete islands and bridge piers.

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Plan

In order to fully address the problem of poor visibility due to faded pavement markings, I think that the pavements have to be well-marked in the federal state of New Jersey. The whole exercise can take a few days, since it will only involve making the markings and installing appropriate road signs. It will greatly reduce road accidents that have been attributed to poor visibility of the markings on the pavements. As a result, they have caused considerable problems to motorists, and increased chances of accidents on the roads. The renovation of markings on the pavements will greatly reduce accidents on the roads. The plan is to make improvements in terms of the pavement markings. It will be not only about improving the markings, but also about using different materials to make sure that the markings last longer. The proposed materials for marking the pavements should be thermoplastic due to its visibility and durability. The improved markings will increase visibility for drivers in extreme weather conditions or during the night. The plan will help reduce the number of serious car crashes during the night. Most of the accidents have been reported to occur at night. They also occur due to adverse weather conditions. With proper markings, it will be greatly alleviated, and road accidents will be greatly reduced (John 46).

Budget Plan

A typical marking using thermoplastic costs approximately 100$. It is for every meter of the pavement. To completely mark the approximately 25 kilometers of the pavement, alongside marking parking spaces, the total cost would be the following.

1 meter requires 100$. 1 kilometer would require 1000 meters multiplied by $100. The product is 100, 000$. 25 kilometers would, therefore, require 2.5 million $. It is the proposed budget for the marking pavements. This amount could, however, change due to logistics, thus, a more realist budget should include these deviations as well. With this budget, the road can be completed within the shortest time possible. The city clerk ought to ensure that the renovation work is done according to the schedule in order not to spend more money due to logistics such as poor weather and delays. With these apects properly checked, there would be no need to delay the renovation. During the period of marking and repainting the road signs, arrangements should be made in order to divert traffic from the construction work.

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