Obesity and excessive weight are a spreading worldwide rampant problem with two-thirds of the adult population and a growing number of children being obese. The pervasiveness of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension is the proof of the prevalence of obesity. This project discusses a health promotion plan including target population, health issues, health promotion strategy, participant recruitment, and the outcome evaluation. The aim of this strategy is to provide a synthesis of current findings of epidemiological surveys on poor nutrition, obesity, and diabetes mellitus and the mechanisms of the onset of type 2 diabetes. A thoughtful consideration of the close association of obesity, poor nutrition, and diabetes may help with the clinical treatment of obesity and lead to reductions in cardiovascular and renal risks. Hopefully, after reading plan of state recommendations, non-governmental agencies and health organizations will adopt it and use it to improve the health status of the target population. The plan also anticipates a variety of challenges encountered in the process of implementation of the California nutrition plan. However, it provides solutions to these problems ensuring that the plan is adaptable, practical, and efficient in its application in the state of California.
Keywords: diabetes type 2, obesity, malnutrition
California Nutrition Plan
The lack of proper nutrition is associated with the increasing number of cases of obesity in the United States and the state of California (US health-care reform, 2008). Notably, many patients are diabetic and hypertensive in addition to being obese. Diabetes and obesity are among the six most prominent causes of death in the United States. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes (metabolic syndrome) are high-risk factors of subsequent cardiovascular and renal problems. Insulin resistance and sympathetic nervous activation play the key roles in cardiovascular and renal complications among patients with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. There is a significant need to come up with a plan to counter the problem of poor nutrition and this paper seeks to provide a solution that will lead to improved health care in the USA.
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Age and Demographic Background
The research focuses on white and black female young adults aged 18-26 who are not married in California, United States. However, they are mostly a school going population,, so they have no regular flow of income and are not employed.
Reasons For The Selected Population Sample
Interestingly, female adults aged 18-26 in California are in transition, recently separated from their homes and parents. However, they are not yet completely autonomous as adults. Additionally, young female adults aged 18-26 have a higher prevalence of significant health risks compared to other age sets and sexes (US health-care reform, 2008). The health risks are the result of neglecting health threats in this particular age. They are also the largest uninsured age group in California.
The target group is a unique sample. Thus, a need is created to delve into the sample to figure out their health problems compared to the rest of the population. They have the highest rate of sexually transmitted diseases, poor mental health, prevailing substance abuse, and poor reproductive health. Notably, chronic diseases are also so rampant among the emerging California youths. Notably, chronic illness like diabetes, cancer, hypertension, mental disorders, heart disease, and stroke among others are more prevalent among the recently emerging adults.
Evidence Related to the Selected Health Issue
The health problem in question is the current increase in type 2 diabetes and nutrition and weight management. According to a report by the World Health Organization, the change in lifestyle among the emerging youths in California has led to drastically escalating lifestyle diseases including obesity, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses (Danziger, 2012). These chronic conditions among others threaten the health of emerging adults of California. They are among the highest causes of mortality among young people. Reportedly, in the United States, there are over 16.3 million cases of chronic disorders (Aggarwal & Topaloglu, 2015). Notably, many instances of these chronic diseases start and develop during early adulthood.
The Relationship between Health Issue and the Target Population
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increases with age. In California, one percent of population rate themselves among the adolescents. Importantly, in California obesity increases with an increase in age (US health-care reform, 2008). Obesity and excessive weight occurrence rates in emerging adults hit nearly fifty percent of males and females (Maxwell, 2012). Nutrition being an essential element of good health is of little concern to adolescents. Emerging adults eat few fruits and vegetables but consume more fast food than young adults. Thus, lack of proper nutrition among emerging youths in California leads to the increase in type 2 diabetes and obesity rates.
Overall and Target Population Prevalence of the Health Issue
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity is alarming in California and the rest of the United States. Lack of proper nutrition is also a critical health concern. Diabetes type two, obesity, and hypertension are among the six leading causes of death in California (Maxwell, 2012). Those are high-risk agents responsible for subsequent cardiovascular disorders and renal complications. During the previous few decades, obesity and diabetes type two have drastically increased among all of Californias population (Danziger, 2012). However, the situation is more dangerous for emerging adults, approximately over fifty percent of whom had a condition akin to a chronic problem (US health-care reform, 2008).
California Nutrition Plan
Goal and Objectives
The California nutrition program focuses on policy and implementation of strategies to improve the diet of emerging adult females and address the rising cases of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The plan uses the research-based evidence that there is a prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the female emerging adults in California. Therefore, the project aims at educating and supporting the target population in order to:
I. Increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables
II. Increase physical activities
III. Avoid consumption of junk foods (foods with high calorie count but little nutritional value)
IV. Avoid consumption of sweetened beverages and alcoholic substances
V. Encourage people to diagnose their conditions early
Strategies for the Achievement of Goals
In efforts to achieve the California nutrition plan objectives, seminars dedicated to educating people on the need to observe consumption of proper diet will be held. Additionally, leaflets on simple exercises that can be done at home and are cheap will be distributed. Moreover, handouts detailing the dangers of alcohol use will be provided to the target group, so that they can read the information for themselves. Additionally, interviews with health experts will be conducted on the possible diagnosis processes including those done at home and those that require a visit to a doctor. After these efforts to create awareness among people, the author intends to:
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I. Reduce the portion of adults who are diabetic and obese (target 30%),
II. Minimize the percentage of adolescents aged 12-18 who are diabetic and obese (target 20%),
III. Reduce the proportion of emerging female adults aged 18 to 26 who are diabetic and
obese (target 30%)
Evidence of the Success of the Plan
Previous plans created to address the problem of malnutrition, type 2 diabetes, and obesity in California had collapsed either before they achieved their objectives or even before their implementation started because of the scarcity of resources and lack of public involvement (US health-care reform, 2008). However, all the factors that have hampered the earlier plans have been taken into consideration. First, relevant government and non-governmental agencies have been asked to help in the funding and promoting the policies of the plan. Bearing in mind the fact that not many people are willing to spend their money on implementing some of the strategies of the plan, cost-free measures indicated in the previous paragraph should be employed. Additionally, the resources used in the dissemination of the strategy are easily conveyable and cheaper to produce, reaching more people.
Barriers to the Implementation of the Plan
Nevertheless, there are various challenges that might prevent the implementation of this nutritional plan. The financial resources to effect its implementation are limited. However, there is a comprehensive strategy to retrieve finances and other resources from government and non-governmental agencies. Additionally, there is a high propensity of the target group to be non-compliant because they are young people. The use of social media will enhance dissemination of policies of the plan because the target group is more attracted to various social media networks including Facebook, Twitter, etc.
Implementation of California health plan will utilize various resources depending on their affordability and availability. The resources include printed materials and media among others. Written materials like leaflets, handouts will broadcast information on the plan. Additionally, social media platforms including but not limited to Facebook and Twitter will convey some of the strategies of the plan, and this will counter non-compliance by the target group. An audio presentation of an interview with a health expert will also deliver the message of the project.
Selection of The Participants
The participant selection process will entail invitation of fellow students to help in the execution of the plan. Additionally, volunteers from the public, including those belonging to the target group will also be significant. Members of the health practitioners societies, non-governmental health organizations, and the states health agencies will be invited to participate in the plan execution. The willing participants who have the knowledge on any of the fields covered in the plan will also offer their support.
Methods of Advertising
Chiefly, conducting marketing through social media will be imminent because there are limited resources for print or other complex and expensive methods of advertising. A Facebook page titled California Nutritional Plan will be established and people will be invited to like the page, and likewise invite their friends. Posts on Instagram with a banner of the plan will also work significantly towards promotion of the policy. Furthermore, a Twitter account detailing the objectives of the plan will attract many followers across the state of California. Chiefly, social media is popular across the globe and its use in selling of the goals of the plan is imperative to the success of the plan.
Resources Promoting the Plan
Resource people are imperative in any idea promotion process. They attract peoples attention due to the fact that they provide firsthand information to the target population. Thus, in the promotion of the California nutrition plan such resource people as health practitioners will elaborate to the target group the pertinent issues of nutritional health. Additionally, a person recovering from obesity will explain to the target group how she managed to lose her weight during the seminar. Moreover, a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes will explain to the target group how she tested positive for the condition and the kind of therapy she has undertaken since the diagnosis (Aggarwal & Topaloglu, 2015). Importantly, the resource people will suggest precautions to the target group to avoid the disease.
Handling Participant Attrition
Participant attrition is a common problem during the enactment of a particular plan. However, all the participants are fully committed and in the process from the beginning to the end. Notably, this calls for extra measures to entice them and maintain them. Thus, in partnership with the state government and non-governmental organization, transport services will be provided where necessary, as well as drinks and refreshments and allowances for the work covered.
Determining the Outcome of the Plan
The effectiveness of the plan will be evaluated by the target group response, partners response and goal achievement. A positive response from the target group will represent a success for the program. Additionally, the partners in the implementation of the plan will provide their feedback on the efficacy of the scheme. Accordingly, records of progress from the partners will demonstrate notable progress of the whole plan. Moreover, complete execution of the plan will mean that the goals of the plan are practical and real. Therefore, the aims of the plan if underachieved will infer failure of the plan while the achievements of the goals of the plan will indicate success. The plan outlines the targeted goals.
Outcomes measurements will be used to evaluate the plan. It is in some ways the most critical form of important measurement because what interests most people is whether a plan has improved peoples health or not (Danziger, 2012). It focuses on the unintended effects of treatment, traditional measures of treatment, and the relief of symptoms. Thus, the measurement will evaluate the effectiveness of the plan in the eradication of obesity and type 2 diabetes among female adults in the state of California in the United States. Every two weeks, an evaluation of the plan will be conducted.
The California nutrition plan presents an effective set of actions to counter the rising cases of chronic illnesses in the state of California. It is evident, that the nutrition plan aims at reducing cases of obesity among female emerging youths aged 18 to 26 years. Over and above, it is clear that the hope of the plan rests on the reduction of calories consumption among the female emerging adults that will inevitably reduce cases of obesity, and avoid development of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes.