In 1871-1914, the world burst out with a great deal of ideas. That period of time is characterized with mens courage, tremendous pieces of music created by composers, and revolutionary paintings wrote by painters. The new ideas depicted and revealed in words, music and art developed human confidence, made to believe in science, human kindness, individual and social development. The aristocratic monarchies that defeated France tended to establish the conservative order, which meant to keep France in order, and do not allow political revolutions and radical change to occur. Thus, the followers decided to meet at the Congress of Vienna for intensifying conservative forces. Nevertheless, their efforts were unsuccessful after 1815. Almost all the ideas of intellectuals and socialists were radical. They did not support the old conservatism, hereditary monarchy and aristocracy. Therefore, radicals sought to persuade society to follow the alternative ideologies, which became successful within time. The three most sufficient ideologies, which appeared in the beginning of the 19th century, were liberalism, socialism and nationalism. Jointly, they destroyed old Western European order. Count Metternich and his colleagues at the Congress of Vienna wanted to return to the old system with its hereditary monarchy, regulated church, and advantageous landowning aristocracy. However, the American and French revolutions had created extremely deep changes in political thought.
Place New Order
The French Revolution destructed a monarchy and jointly with political groups took over such principles of the liberalism as the hierarchy, privilege and tradition. During the first two years of the French Revolution, liberalism implemented reforms for the common people. Therefore, in the early 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte started to rule France and turned the revolution into a military dictatorship. England, which has been the motherland of liberalism and the proponents of liberal laws, never succeeded in providing all their demands. The rest nations adopted only parts of the liberal program, while others rejected or refused after a short time. Two main ideas of liberalism were liberty and equality. In comparison to autocratic monarchy, liberalism sought representative government. The liberalistic principle declared the freedom of press, speech, assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest. The liberal program was accepted only by France and Great Britain who equally did not succeed. In the beginning of the 19th century, liberalism gained a great number of radical opponents who criticized its economics. Its principles contained in limited private enterprise and inviolability for government, which was the so-called laissez faire doctrine. The Scottish philosopher Adam Smith was the first to introduce free economy and modern economics. He rejected the ideas of mercantilism of 18th century, which sought to control trade and economics. Smith believed that free competition and self-regulating market would provide for both poor and rich citizens the opportunity to occupy their favorite affairs. The economic liberalism was encircled by business groups, and became doctrine concerning business interests. In the early 19th century, liberals supported representative government, and tended to apply property qualifications to the right of vote, which meant the restricting of votes to wealthy people. The lower middle class, who had no property, could not vote. After 1815, liberalism did not prosper and was associated with the middle class. The radical democrats and republicans called for universal voting rights and democracy.
The beginning of modern nationalism originated from the destruction of cultural background and the social order in 5th - 15th centuries. The destroyed feudalism, dominant social and economic systems were followed by the bigger communities, wider social relationships, and dynasties that promoted feelings of nationality. In the 16th century, the adoption of a national religion Catholicism promoted national cohesion. The French Revolution is considered to be the inception of nationalism in Europe. As a result, the motherland has become preferable to the king. In 1789, as France gained a representative system of government, regional divisions were cancelled, and France became a united national territory with general laws and institutions. The European Revolution of 1848 awoke national consciousness in various peoples. The events in Europe between 1878 and 1918 were characterized by the nationalist desire of these peoples to form independent nation-states. Nationalism was a second radical idea aimed at affecting the contemporary world. The founders of the nationalistic ideology claimed that each nation has its own cultural peculiarities revealing as common language, history and territory. Actually, only elite ethnic groups spoke proper written language, and numerous ethnic groups shared the areas of most states. Nevertheless, European nationalists were aimed at transforming the cultural unity into a political reality. It could result in forming an independent nation-state for people to live in. Therefore, nationalism had an explosive nature in Europe where nations have mixed. Nationalists succeeded because the industrial urban residents demanded better communication between individuals and groups. It developed the usage of proper language in various countries, and created a superficial cultural unit, which eventually educated the population mass. Supporters of the new ideology sought to form communities for binding great number of strangers around the notion of the encircling national identity. Therefore, citizens were brought together due to ethnic festivals and parades to celebrate the created nation of spiritual equals. Since 1815 till 1850, the supporters of nationalism believed as well in liberalism or radical, democratic republicanism. These two ideologies are connected with a common belief in peoples creativity and nobility. People were considered to be a basic source of good government for liberals and democrats. Freedoms of living, mental and spiritual development were considered to be the main principles for nationalists. They realized that harmonious coexistence of free peoples would unite the whole world. Thus, the Europe in the early 19th century is characterized by the ambiguous nationalism, liberal and democratic thrust, peoples freedom and love of free nation. Nevertheless, nationalists continued to distinguish people by classes.
- Our custom writing services includes:
- Custom essay writing for the best grades;
- CV, resume and cover letters which would
make you successful
- Thesis and dissertations writing by academic
Socialism was a new radical doctrine, which was established in France after 1815. French ideologists were disturbed that society was transformed because of the political revolution in France, rise of laissez faire and the emergence of factory industry in England. These factors developed selfish individualism and divided community into isolated parts. They saw an urgent necessity to reorganize the society for establishing cooperation and a new sense of community. French socialists supported economic planning arguing that the government should organize the economy in a rational way. Furthermore, they wanted to help poor people, and strictly regulate or even abolish the private property. All these were the main ideas of French socialism. Henri de Saint-Simon was one of the most sufficient socialists who declared the possibilities of industrial development and considered proper social organization to be the key to progress. Another famous socialist was called Charles Fourier whose idea was a utopia of self-sufficient communities. He proposed the complete emancipate of women, abolition of marriage and free unions based on love and sexual liberty. People of middle-class were shocked by these ideas, which they considered to be immoral, dangerous and revolutionary. The ideas of French utopian socialists merged with turban workers who cherished the memory about French Revolution, and were negatively turned against laissez-faire regulations, which prohibited the right to organize. Workers supported cooperation and participation of government within economics. As the aspirations of workers to work jointly with the utopian theorists, a socialist movement happened in Paris. Karl Marx has become the one who established strict regulations for contemporary socialism. Together with Friedrich Engels, he published The Communist Manifesto, which is considered to be a bible of socialism. French socialists belonged to the middle class. However, Marx claimed that their positions resisted the position of industrial workers, because these classes exploited each other. Generally, there were two classes: the middle class called the bourgeoisie and the working class called proletariat. Marx supposed that as the bourgeoisie excelled the feudal aristocrats, the proletariat would violently attack the bourgeoisie.
In conclusion, liberalism is considered to be the greatest political ideology in the world history. French and American revolutions used it as the motive power, which sought to provide individual liberty in each sphere of life. Liberalism fought against the Old Regime and wanted to provide the freedom and equality proclaimed by the French Revolution. The followers of liberalism desired to free themselves from the oppressive regime, from the tyranny king, religion and the misbalanced wealth division. Nationalism was a movement, which supposed the nation-state to be the most efficient force for the realization of economic, social and cultural desires of people. Generally, nationalism is characterized by a peoples feeling of unity, based on common descent, language and religion, focused the sacredness of the nation. Socialism has become a force and an ideology while the proletariat was called a class. It was aimed in order to cooperate a new society rather than on capitalist fight against the Industrial Revolution. The revolutionary activity of the workers occurred violently resisting the bourgeois regime. The interaction between social liberalism and socialism is vague; therefore, many types of socialism evidently differ themselves from liberalism by resisting capitalism, hierarchy and private property. These ideologies broke into few big and small movements. Marx repelled the key ideas of liberal ideology, hoping to destruct both the state and the liberal differentiation between society and the people combining the two into a community in order to destroy the prosperous capitalist regime of the 19th century.