There are various concepts that can influence ones personal worldview, and spirituality, pluralism, scientism and postmodernism are among them. Each of these terms has a special meaning for me. For example, spirituality is the embodiment of something divine and a spirit in a person. In a global sense, spirituality helps to hold society together since it can increase morality and the value of traditions with the help of religion or art (Koenig, 2008).
Then, the pluralism presupposes that there are several independent foundations of being or true knowledge or that reality consists of many basic substances. For me, pluralism is a belief that there is no one right set of true knowledge about the world, but there are different opinions and views reflecting the diversity of interests in society. It is easy to explain this term in political life: pluralism in political society means that social groups have the opportunity to express their positions through their representatives in political and public organizations (Rauhut & Smith, 2009).
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The third important term is scientism, and it represents the scientific knowledge of the highest cultural values ??and a basic factor of human interaction with the world. Scientism puts science at the center of the ideological and cultural life of society (Spencer, 2012). Scentisists believe that life can be organized and successfully managed only through science (Spencer, 2012).
Finally, postmodernism is a kind of response to the significant changes that are taking place in world culture now (Gosselin, 2012). Postmodernism focuses on the formation of the living space in which the main value is freedom in all the spontaneity of human activity (Gosselin, 2012). The postmodern consciousness is aimed at denying any kind of norms and traditions, the refusal of the authorities and ending with the rules of human behavior in communicating with others.
There are several questions the answers to which reflect my personal worldview as well.
1. What is prime reality?
Prime reality is the reality implemented in its entirety that is related not only to the reality of things, but also of materialized ideas, goals, ideals, morality or generally accepted knowledge. The prime reality includes all perfect aspects that took the material nature in the form of various products of human activity. Additionally, prime reality may be associated with divinity and God.
2. What is the nature of the world around us?
It is necessary to distinguish between the world known as the universe limited in space and time, where the world is the subject of scientific knowledge and "the world as a whole", where the world is the subject of ontology (Rauhut & Smith, 2009). The nature of the world lies in its potential infinity, and its integrity is open since it upholds the further development. Actual infinity of the world is always limited to a certain state, and does not act as an absolute unity. The unity of the world and its diversity are in a dialectical relationship since they are intrinsically and inextricably linked.
3. What is a human being?
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A human being is a unity of material and spiritual aspects. The distinctive feature of human is the inner world and individuality. Individuality is a collection of all inherited and acquired qualities that distinguish one person from another: that is when a human being becomes a person. The term "person" expresses the totality of the social qualities that an individual has acquired in the course of life and shows them in a variety of forms of activity and behavior. In order to become a person, a human being gets social experience of previous generations accumulated in the skills, abilities, habits, traditions, norms, knowledge, values, etc., familiarizing with the current system of social connections and relationships.
4. What happens to a person at death?
In most cases, the question about what is after the death is a representation of the belief in the immortality of the soul, which is characteristic of the majority of religious and philosophical worldviews. Among the main ideas are the resurrection of the dead; reincarnation; post mortal reward (Eagleton, 2010). I mostly believe in reincarnation because believing in it may influence life positively and makes people think about actions every day.
5. Why is it possible to know anything at all?
It is possible to know anything because the human brain has a capability to memorize things. Therefore, the information brain receives is stored, processed and used, so that the person knows something. From the more philosophical point of view, a person can know something because of own associations, judgement and inevitable life experience. Everyday, people get so much information that one cannot avoid knowing things.
6. How do we know what is right or wrong?
I do not use life criteria, such as right or wrong, because there is nothing in our lives that could be called absolutely good or bad; all that we can express is only our opinion and assessment. Right or wrong is determined by what we value the most and what gains we can make from a person, situation or certain activity. Constant evaluation of everything and everyone in order to see what is right and what is wrong brings insecurity. A person then tries to conform to generally accepted canons of good and when he or she wants to do something that he or she likes, but what someone considers as bad, then the fight with oneself starts.
7. What is the meaning of human history?
Human history has a meaning only if it has a purpose. By combining the values ??into internal and external and the objective and subjective ones, one can distinguish some positions on the question of the meaning of history. The first one is that history is endowed with a meaning because it is a means to achieve certain values?. Then, human history has a meaning because it is valuable in itself, at every moment of its existence, and this intrinsic value of history is completely independent from the people and groups no matter if they can understand the meaning and value of history or not. Human history makes sense as a means of achieving those ideals that humanity has developed and which it seeks to gradually implement in the course of its activities.