Teen ages are usually associated with puberty. In fact, puberty is a period of changes in the human organism. It usually happens between the ages ranging from 13 to 19. In this period, drastic changes occur, so that human organism and psyche are altered considerably. Therefore, in this period, young organism is especially vulnerable to different diseases and injuries, because an old immune system is losing its functions, while a new one has not yet took the control over all processes in the body of a teenager. That is why it is necessary to pay a special attention to at least the most basic aspects of human health. Doubtless, spine is one of them. Thus, it is necessary to discuss some evidence of scoliosis as a serious and widespread condition. It may occur due to the several reasons, but adolescent scoliosis requires an immediate intervention of a doctor. Hence, it is necessary to observe and discuss an example of adolescent scoliosis evidence.
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To begin with, it is necessary to give a medical history of a patient N. The patient lives in a full family, his mother is a teacher in a high school, and his father is a chef cook in a local restaurant. The father had various spine injuries at the kitchen and three burns of the second grade. The patients mother complained about high blood pressure several times. Speaking about personal medical history of the patient, it is necessary to say that his birth was accompanied by the asphyxia, and he had to be given a special recovering treatment at the very first days after the birth. At the age of nine, the patient injured his back with a contusion, which resulted in one-inch scar. In general, the patient N was following a normal process of development by the age of fourteen. At this age, the patient was diagnosed with scoliosis of the first stage. The patient N does not have any special medical prescriptions. However, the patient N is allergic to silk material.
Speaking about abnormalities of adolescent scoliosis, it is to be said that none of the causes can be totally proven. Still, such abnormalities as genetic predisposition disorders of bone, muscle, or cartilage growth and neuromuscular dysfunction are known to be regarded as a basis for scoliosis development (Boden, Borenstein & Wiesel, 2004, p.295). Taking this into consideration, it is to be admitted that in this case, genetic predisposition plays an important role. As the family history witnesses, the father of the patient N had several spine injuries, which all occurred to him before a birth of the patient N, so that certain disorders might have influenced the health of the child. What is more, the patient N injured his back badly several years ago. An appropriate treatment was given in time, but the injury is suspected as the meaningful reason for the development of scoliosis. Thus, these aspects are enough to understand the reason for scoliosis development.
Developmental Stage Assessment
The developmental stage of the patient Ns scoliosis was clearly seen on the X-ray photocopy, which actually witnesses about S-curve in the lower part of the spine. In fact, the curve is not drastic, but the form of it definitely witnesses about the development of the scoliosis. What is more, the patient N started complaining about pain at the injured part of the spine. As a consequence, the X-ray photocopy also clearly showed that the highest angle of the curve is observed in the place, where the contusion occurred. Thus, it is to be admitted that the previous spine injury has actually influenced the development of scoliosis. Hence, it can be considered as abnormality. On the contrary, it is the only evidence of abnormality. The rest of the patient Ns spine does not present any abnormalities or special conditions. All in all, the patient N has just a threat of scoliosis; that is why, it is necessary to take appropriate preventive measures.
As the X-ray photocopy witnessed, the S-curve is observed in the area of the previous injury of the patient N. Besides that, it is necessary to describe several additional factors, which may give some extra details about the diagnosis. For starters, it should be mentioned that the patient is a teenager, and he definitely spends a meaningful period of time sitting in front of the computer. Thus, sitting long hours is not recommended, especially in such age. What is more, the patient N probably does not pay attention to keeping his posture in a healthy way. In addition, as the parents of the patient N admitted, he attends a local gym for exercising with weights. Therefore, an extra pressure on the spine is not healthy for adolescent organism, which is still not strong enough to exercise so hard. In consequence, it resulted in pain in the area of the curve, because it is the weakest part of the spine.
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Discussion of Theories
Doubtless, scoliosis makes a huge impact on the development of the child. Hence, mental development is not an exception; that is why, it is necessary to describe several theories with regard to the patient Ns condition. To begin with, Piagets theory claims that in adolescence children start thinking critically and predicting possible outcomes of a certain action. Thus, scoliosis is able to limit this cognitive process. Some actions are considered as impossible by a child with a bad scoliosis. As the theory by Freud states, puberty is associated with a sexual interest of a teenager. In this age, children usually start pay attention to the opposite sex, and secondary sexual features start developing. Hence, scoliosis may influence sexual development of the patient as well. What is more, teenagers are likely to value the leadership of people of their age. Consequently, a child with scoliosis has a risk to be humiliated strongly at this age. Finally, Eriksons theory develops Freuds theory and admits that every change of the developments stage is accompanied by a particular crisis. This crisis can be described as a rapid progress of a new process and gradual decline of the old ones. Taking this into account, a change in adolescent organisms condition can lead to the unhealthy shifts in the newly obtained processes; that is why, scoliosis is especially dangerous in puberty.
As all necessary information about the patient Ns condition has been gathered and discussed, it is necessary to identify a particular diagnosis. In fact, symptoms and medical history can be regarded as a description of two diagnoses. However, it is worth saying that they exclude each other. The first is a status post fracture of the vertebral body or neural arch. Scoliosis convexes to the affected side after the fracture of transverse process. As the medical history says, the patient N had a bad injury in the spine, so that the injury caused scoliosis (Benz-Bohm & Ebel, 2005, p.638). In contrast, it had to be a fracture, because a contusion is not bad enough to develop scoliosis.
The other diagnosis is osteoid osteoma. It is a painful scoliosis, which is typical of not severe cases and is frequently associated with lordosis. What is more, expected density is difficult to measure. CT and MRI can be negative; that is why, a judgment depends on the additional factors (Benz-Bohm & Ebel, 2005, p.638). Taking this into consideration, it is to be said that the patient N does not keep his posture properly, spends long hours sitting at the computer, and does inadequately hard exercises. All in all, the second diagnosis is corresponding to the available information about the patient Ns condition.
Taking into consideration the identified diagnosis, an appropriate medication has to be suggested. Osteoid osteoma presupposes initially conservative treatment. First of all, it is focused on pain medication, but a surgical removal may be necessary. However, in order to avoid surgical intervention, a set of preventive measures should be taken. The latest precautions of osteoid osteoma include: image-guided cryotherapy, interstitial laser photocoagulation, CT-guided drilling with ethanol injection, and CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (Vigorita, 2008, p.381).
To sum up, it is necessary to say that the case of the patients Ns scoliosis provides an example on the way adolescent scoliosis treatment should be conducted. To begin with, the medical history of the patient N and his family was thoroughly examined. Then, the abnormalities, which depict scoliosis, were discussed in order to identify potential causes of scoliosis. As a consequence, developmental stage was described in details, so that it would be possible to make predictions about the following diagnosis. In the meantime, three basic theories of human development were described and linked to the condition of the patient N. Finally, a potential diagnosis was identified. However, it is worth saying that symptoms and medical history witness about two diagnoses simultaneously, which actually exclude mutual existence. As osteoid osteoma has additional causes to occur, it was identified as a potential diagnosis. In consequence, an appropriate medication was recommended. Initially, this treatment is focused on pain medication. What is more, it presupposes taking preventive measures in order to avoid surgical removal.