Abstract

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is the current approach in the provision of evidence-based nursing care to the patient, which has improved patients' outcomes and, as a result, the global health. The main aim of this paper is to discuss how EBP contributes to the improvement of global health. The application of the EBP approach has helped in the provision of high-quality care to the patient. Research shows that the utilization of EBP assists in the effective case management and the prevention of complications. Thus, the primary importance of EBP is the improvement of global health. The understanding of nursing research methods is paramount in the implementation of the EBP approach. Nurses have started the in-service research training to acquire the necessary research knowledge for implementation of EBP. Nursing research is classified into quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research is important as it enables nurses to compare and evaluate the past nursing procedures with the current evidence-based procedures. Nurses all over the world have accepted the concept of EBP in the provision of nursing care to the patients. They have embraced EBP as part of nursing practice leading to the provision of scientifically proven methods of patients management. Nurses have carried out many studies aimed at challenging the current ways of nursing care and improving the quality of the care offered to the patients. Most of these researches have been published in the journals accessible to all nurses. The utilization of EBP has seen the reduction of patients hospital stay and the disease incidence rate. The application of the EBP approach in nursing practice has significantly improved the patients outcome, leading to the improved global health.

Key words: Evidence-based practice, global health, quality care, research.

Evidence-Based Practice Opinion

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Evidence-based Practice (EPB) is the process that involves gathering data, processing, and implementing the findings of research with the aim of improving clinical practice, the work environment, and the outcomes of the patient. Nurses should make sure that nursing interventions are practical, and they should make decisions based on the EPB research studies. The utilization of the EPB approach in nursing practice assists nurses in the provision of high-quality and cost-effective patient care. EPB is a clinical practice approach that has consistently gained acceptance since its formal introduction in 1992. It began in medicine before spreading to other fields such as nursing, education, and psychology. Currently, 56% of all the nursing practices are founded on research findings. The American Nurses Association (ANA) predicts that by the year 2020, approximately 90% of all nursing practice will have a base on research findings (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). Before the introduction of EPB, there was poor global health. The paper will discuss how the application of EBP in nursing practice contributes to the improvement of the global health.

The Importance of EBP Utilization in Nursing Practice

Applying the EPB approach in nursing practice has transformed the field of nursing regarding the improvement in the provision of high-quality care to the patients. Research shows that since the introduction of EPB in 1992, the outcomes of the patient have drastically improved (Giomuso et al., 2014). Nurses are in a position of questioning the current nursing practices when they incorporate the updated information from the new EPB research. Nurses ask questions such as Are my current nursing interventions the most safest or effective for addressing the health needs of my patients? or Can I apply the new EPB interventions in my area of work? (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). The nurses, who are committed to improving the quality of care offered to the patients, compare the current clinical and professional practices with the new EPB research facts and outcomes as they continue emerging. Nurses should become efficient in the evaluation of different types of the EBP research as they assist in the provision of effective rationales proven for the nursing actions.

The application of EBP approach helps nurses to become role models and positive change agents due to the incorporation of new knowledge into their clinical practice and areas of work. This influence helps other nurses, who are not conversant with the EBP approach, to embrace and apply it in their clinical practice, which plays a significant role in improving the global health. Thus, patients spend less time in the hospital because complications rarely occur when nurses utilize the EBP approach (Nazarko, 2012). This approach also helps to cut the health cost as health conditions are identified and treated early before they complicate. The impact of EBP is evidenced in the transformation it has brought in nursing practice, science, and education. The global call for the EBP quality improvement and the transformation of health care emphasizes the need for redesigning nursing care that is efficient, safe, and effective (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). Following the multiple recommendations of the direction setting from the national experts, nurses have decided to engage in the launching of the initiatives that maximize the significant contributions that they have made and will make to deliver on the EBP promises effectively. These initiatives include curricular and education realignment, theory and model development, practice adoption, engaging scientifically in the fields of research, and developing a national research network to improve the study (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). The EBP approach in nursing practice believes in supporting other exciting and innovative thinking in health care.

Understanding Research Methods and EBP Implementation

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The EBP approach in nursing practice involves an intensive research in all nursing areas such as geriatric, hospice acre, home care, and many others to help in coming up with new scientifically proved ways of doing things. Nurses cannot utilize the EBP approach if they do not understand research methods because they are likely to stick to their past ways of providing the nursing care to the patients. Consequently, the improvement of global health, which is the primary goal of the EBP approach, will never be achieved (Giomuso et al., 2014). Therefore, nurses need to be conversant with various research methods to implement EBP effectively and efficiently. Research is required to bridge the research-practice gap that nurses encounter as they discharge their duties. Understanding research methods is paramount to nurses as it helps in the application of EBP to close any identified research gap in nursing. Suitable research methods are needed in strengthening the evidence base so that nurses could understand what works and what does not work in the provision of the best outcomes of the patients (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). It also helps in standardizing the evidence across fields to ensure the best outcome for the patients.

Nursing research is classified into either quantitative or qualitative research methods. The two research methods represent the two types of the EBP research that nurses carry out, evaluate, and use to serve as the guide to the nursing interventions and the improvement of patient care. The comprehension of the above-mentioned research methods and their different subdivisions assists in the improvement of EBP in nursing practice (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). The need to possess knowledge of research methods has led to the introduction of the in-service training programs in the nursing profession to help nurses become conversant with nursing research methods. Research done by ANA in 2015 indicated that most nurses have embraced in service training in research methods to help them in applying EBP in nursing practice (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). Understanding research methods by nurses has transformed nursing practice through the application of EBP.

EBP Utilization by Nurses Globally

Nurses all over the world have embraced the utilization of EBP in nursing practice as a way of improving global health. EBP involves integrating a problem-based approach regarding caring, consideration of the best evidence from studies, care data of the patient, and clinical expertise as well as experience and patient's values and preferences (Nazarko, 2012). National professional organizations such as the International Council of Nurses (ICN), government agencies, and health care agencies have shown strong support to EBP as research continues to indicate improved outcome when EBP is applied in providing patient care (Giomuso et al., 2014). Nurses have acknowledged the significance of EBP in improving the quality of care offered to the patients. Nurses globally have carried out various researches to identify the most effective ways of providing care to the patients (Nazarko, 2012). Furthermore, nurses have learnt to question the current ways of doing things in a bid to improve patient outcomes. A good example is a research performed by Linda Nazarko in 2012 to identify an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and management of cellulitis. Through the application of EBP, the researcher identified the right diagnosis and best antibiotics for managing lower limb cellulitis, which helped in decreasing the condition's incidence significantly.

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EBP approach has assisted nurses to come up with the complementary pain management such as relaxation and patient satisfaction, especially in the cases of post-surgical pain. The World Health Organization (WHO) strives to standardize the nursing care provided to the patients globally (Giomuso et al., 2014). Through its many studies, it has succeeded in outlining evidence based approach to performing the majority of nursing procedures with the aim of improving global health. A recent research done to investigate the best way of taking children blood pressure recommended that nurses should ensure they used the right cuff size, the arm was at the same level as the heart, and they should ensure the minimization of the patients movement (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). In another study done to investigate whether oxygen is necessary for the management of a chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients, the research findings have indicated that oxygen should be provided to prevent hypoxia (Giomuso et al., 2014). Additionally, a study was performed to investigate the best infection prevention strategies in a hospital setting, and the research findings identified several strategies (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). These strategies included hand hygiene, barrier precautions, decontamination of equipment, items and environment, and antibiotic stewardship (Trinder & Reynolds, 2008). These studies are among many studies done by the nurses to support the EBP approach in the provision of high-quality care to the patients. Hence, these studies indicate that nurses utilize the EBP approach with the primary aim of improving global health.

Conclusion

Evidence-based practice in the nursing profession is the new approach that ensures that patients only receive evidence-based care supported by scientific facts. The EBP approach was introduced after health workers had realized that most of the procedures did not produce the desired outcome as per specific patients' conditions. The importance of utilizing the EBP approach ensures that nurses provide high-quality care to the patients, which has helped significantly in improving global health. The knowledge of research methods is essential for the nurses applying the EBP approach. The necessity to apply the EBP approach in the provision of care to the patient has made nurses begin the in-service research training to gain necessary knowledge in research methods. This research knowledge helps them in the implementation of the EBP approach in the provision of high-quality care to the patients. Globally, nurses have embraced the utilization of the EBP approach in the provision of evidence-based nursing care to the patients. Several studies have been done, and many others are being done to support EBP approach. Government and health care agencies have shown strong support to the evidence-based care. Evidence-based practice approach has helped to improve the quality of care provided to the patients, which has led to the improvement of global health.

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