Article # 1

Citation:

Rezaei, J., Abdi, A., Rezaei, M., Heydarnezhadian, J., & Jalali, R. (2015). Effect of regular exercise program on depression in hemodialysis patients. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2015, 1-6. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/182030

Authors: Rezaei, Abdi, Rezaei, Heydarnezhadian, and Jalali.

Title: Effect of Regular Exercise Program on Depression in Hemodialysis Patients.

Journal: International Scholarly Research Notices

Year: 2015

Volume: 2015

Issues: N/A

Pages: 1 6

Data Base Used: Hindawi

Key Words: depression, hemodialysis, patients, treatment, clinical trial.

Selection of Article: The current article was chosen because it represents a concise and credible research on the topic covering depression and the effects of exercise program. In addition to this, the authors of the article provide a reader with numerous examples of the ways depression is connected with hemodialysis and the possible reasons and consequences that can occur when applying it. Finally, the conducted scholarly investigation contains numerous empirical results, which are likely to impact the medical science to a great and positive extent.

Type of Study: Quantitative

Purpose of the Study: to evaluate the benefits from the daily exercise on the patients who need hemodialysis and suffer from depression.

Location/Setting: The authors are the employees at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; to the Department of Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; and to the School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Variables:

Independent variable: age, gender, openness of patients.

Dependent variable: the amount of exercising, the degree (level) of depression.

Framework Theory: not stated

Study Design: the study was designed in a program format. The authors have chosen to use educating posters and other visual materials, along with the face-to-face approaches, in order to challenge the group. It was decided that the medical intervention will be conducted three times per week. This had to last for ten weeks. The depression rate was assessed and recorded at two stages of investigation, at the beginning and at the end. This is expected to help in comparing the results and medical interventions impact.

Sample:

Sample Size: the investigators have been working with 51 hemodialysis patients.

Sample Methods: the investigators divided the participants into two categories, or groups. This had to help in comparing the progress when patients worked on overcoming the depressive syndrome and analyze the reasons why the results are different.

Sample Characteristics (age, race, income, gender, etc.): the sample consisted of the patients aged 1565, regardless of their race, income and gender; all of the patients suffered from the depression or the depressive syndrome.

Data Sources: the data were collected with the help of empirical investigation, which took place in Emam Reza Hospital, an educational center that is affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) of Kermanshah in the west of Iran and recorded in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT).

Data Collection Measures: the data was collected and analyzed by the means of the SPSS16 software.

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Description of Measures: the computer program SPSS16 software helped to collect and analyze the obtained data and showed the essential tendencies in the progress of hemodialysis and depression patients.

Procedures:

Data Analysis: the scholars came up with the usage of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale in order to assess the necessary criteria in patients who suffer from depression.

Results/Findings: in accordance with the findings obtained from the conducted research, there appeared no significant differences between the two groups the patients had been divided into, the case group and the control groups. The rate of depression, which had been recorded at the beginning of the research was changed to a great extent after the intervention with the result (P = 0,016). At the very beginning of the study, the rate of SD of depression, which was measured in the case group, was referred to as 23,8 9,29 and, finally, at the end of the experiment, it had been reduced up to the index of 11,07 12,64.

Recommendations:

It has been stated that the state of patients who suffer from depression had been improved after the interventions. It means that it is important to investigate in a more detailed way the factors which were good and which ones were better, in order to improve them and apply to the further patients in order to help them overcome the existing depressive syndromes. Furthermore, an additional attention has to be paid to the relapses of the disease. Thus, it is important to investigate the dynamics of depression that returns.

Strengths: the strengths of the article consist in the fact that the authors performed a top quality research, which was conducted in the natural environment and conditions the patients were in. The findings obtained during the investigation are likely to impact the science and make a significant contribution to the study of depression and the symptoms which lead to the disorder.

Weaknesses: the main weakness of the investigation consisted in the limitations which can be assumed to be significant to some extent. For instance, the investigators did not take into consideration the economic status of their patients, but it is known to be one of the reasons for the depression to emerge.

Discussion: a study of anxiety-depressive state of patients has revealed that they had the increased the level of anxiety and depression. For instance, itching worsens anxiety and depression in patients receiving treatment by the means of hemodialysis. Comparing two groups of patients, a significant increase in the level of depression and anxiety in patients was identified on a general basis.

During the study of hemodialysis treatment on the patients and depression, age was acclaimed to affect the level of anxiety and depression. The level of depression and anxiety is directly correlated with the level of creatinine in hemodialysis patients. Statistical processing of the results was carried out by conventional methods of parametric and nonparametric statistics. Differences were considered significant at p

Article # 2

Citation:

Kelley, G., Kelley, K., & Hootman, J. (2015). Effects of exercise on depression in adults with arthritis: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Res Ther, 17(1). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-015-0533-5

Authors: Kelley, G., Kelley, K., & Hootman.

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Title: Effects of exercise on depression in adults with arthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Journal: Arthritis Res Ther

Year: 2015

Volume: 17

Issues: 1

Pages: online

Data Base used: Open MedCenter

Key Words: arthritis, depression, exercise, controlled trials, patients.

Selection of article: the article has been chosen for the analysis due to the reason that it, first and foremost, regards the connection between two illnesses, which have not been investigated in their unity before, such as arthritis and depression. Secondly, the article represents a valuable study which is going to make a great contribution to the medical science in several fields.

Type of Study: Qualitative

Purpose of the study: to carry out the analysis, in order to determine the key impacts of various types of exercises on the patients who suffer from depression, and are also burdened by the arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (AORC).

Location/Setting: Department of Biostatistics, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, West Virginia University and Division of Population Health MS F-78, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta.

Variables:

Independent variable: age, gender, openness of the patients.

Dependent variable: the amount of exercising, the degree (level) of depression.

Framework Theory: the authors of the investigation used such databases as (1) Medline, (2) CINAHL, (3) Sport Discus, (4) PsycINFO, (5) Scopus, (6) Academic Search Complete, (7) Proquest, (8) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, (9) PEDro and (10) Web of Science.

Study Design: the study was designed in such a way that the data collected did not cross and in order to escape from creating the biases. In addition to this, the articles which have been selected for the analysis are united by the common particularity: they do not provide a reader with the complete information and conclusions on how to face depression treatment in cases with arthritis.

Sample:

Sample Size: the investigators have been working with fifty citations which included 2,449 patients.

Sample Methods: analysis and meta-analysis.

Sample Characteristics (age, race, income, male/female, etc.): the citations and scholarly investigations the authors worked with were selected in accordance with the characteristic of the following data: g = ?0.42, 95% CI, ?0.58, ?0.26, Q = 126.9, P <0.0001, l2 = 73.2%.

Data Sources: the results were obtained from such databases as (1) Medline, (2) CINAHL, (3) Sport Discus, (4) PsycINFO, (5) Scopus, (6) Academic Search Complete, (7) Proquest, (8) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, (9) PEDro and (10) Web of Science.

Data Collection Measures: manual analysis of the investigations, Reference Manager, version 12.0.1., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 2.2), Microsoft Excel 2010, and two external add-ins for Excel, SSC-Stat (version 2.18) and EZ-Analyze (version 3.0)

Description of Measures: manual analysis of the investigations, taken from the databases, in order to make them correspond to the Arthritis Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria.

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Procedures:

Data Analysis: manual analysis of the investigations with the help of Reference Manager, version 12.0.1.

Results/Findings: it has been found out that, in most cases, the exercises lead to the positive treatment. In accordance with the findings section of the investigation, 32 (which are 91.4%) of the exercise groups have ranged from 0% to 50% (x SD = 16.2% 12.2%, Mdn = 15.3%), while control group dropouts ranged from 0% to 46% (x SD = 14.1% 13.3%, Mdn = 12.5%) for the 25 (86.2%) groups in which data were available.

Recommendations:

The further study of predictors, characteristics and dynamics of the pathogenesis of disorders of anxiety-depression spectrum in arthritis patients can be conducted. The gap the study contains consists in the timeframe and the opportunity of the relapse of the disease. Furthermore, there is a strong necessity in evaluating the level of arthritis development and depression rates.

Strengths: the study represents the first attempt of analysis of the currently existing investigations on the problem of depression vulnerability of people with arthritis. Furthermore, the investigators have calculated the tendency in which depression is treated and what kind of measures is to be taken, in order to prevent people from depression and help them overcome it.

Weakness: the essential weakness of the article consists in the fact that analysis was conducted on the articles selected by the random way. It means that the investigators could have hypothetically omitted the articles which could have been more useful for the research.

Discussion:

A very significant idea which had been singled out in the article is that depressive disorders in arthritis are widespread. Perhaps, this is due to the fact that these diseases are characterized by similar causes and mechanisms of development of the significance of chronic stress and systemic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, which determine the need for a systematic approach to comprehensive treatment.

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