Introduction

Gastrointestinal tract is a complex system that involves a variety of organs. From time to time, the patients fail to recognize either their own problems with gastrointestinal tract or the issues that their children have. The example of such issues is the case discussed this paper where a 3-month-old female vomits a white milky substance each time she drinks. Her mother is concerned about an allergy to the feeding substances and changes the formula. However, the investigation demonstrates that the daughter has pathology of gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, one presumes that it is important to trace the differences between the states of normal and pathological functioning of this system. It is evident that there is a need for obtaining knowledge about common gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. The paper suggests that this information would allow adults to be aware of the pathologies and seek a timely medical care.

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Normal Pathophysiology of Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastrointestinal tract is a long organic system present within the body that consists of the specialized sections. Each of these sections is responsible for a particular stage of digestion. Moreover, they are capable of extracting the useful substances from food and driving out waste products. Hormones control the functioning of the gastrointestinal system as well as the rest of the systems within the human body. Various hormones are responsible for the activation of acid secretion, the mode of motility, release of enzymes and other processes. The typical functions of gastrointestinal system are digestion, absorption, and protection from pathogenic and toxic substances.

The functioning of the system begins with swallowing. This process causes the fundus to relax to receive food from the esophagus (McCance & Huether, 2015). Afterwards, the stomach motility increases and lasts from three to six hours. The actual time of this procedure depends on the composition of food and its volume. The retropulsion inside the system causes mixing the food with digestive juices whereas the oscillating motion breaks down the food particles (McCance & Huether, 2015). Further, cephalic, gastric and intestinal phases of digestion follow. The first one is associated with the secretion of a wide range of substances, such as gastrin, pepsinogen, and insulin. Each of them is responsible for the assistance to digestion. For instance, insulin maintains the glucose level. The gastric phase occurs in the stomach. During this process, the products of proteins break down and stimulate the release of gastrin (McCance & Huether, 2015). The intestinal phase is a deceleration of the gastric secretion. McCance and Huether (2015) argue that during this stage, pancreatic secretions are stimulated with secretin and cholecystokinin inhibiting gastric secretions. Thus, the processes within gastrointestinal tract involve a wide variety of secreted substances, which are regulated by hormones. The complexity of the system may lead to disorders in secretion or functioning.

Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Peptic Ulcer, and Gastritis

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Furthermore, the paper traces the pathophysiological processes associated with the listed gastrointestinal diseases. Among them, there are gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. Scholars claim that GERD is a condition in which the reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus provokes symptoms or complications and impairs quality of life (De Giorgi, Palmiero, Esposito, Mosca & Cuomo, 2006). The typical symptoms of GERD are heartburn and regurgitation. However, despite there are several factors adding to the pathophysiology of this condition, this paper focuses on the increased acidic secretion and subtend factors. Thus, during the development of the pathology, a reflux of acid, bile, pepsin and pancreatic enzymes occurs, which cause oesophageal mucosal injury (De Giorgi et al., 2006). Additionally, the similar processes are associated with peptic ulcer, which is a raw area within the stomach or intestine. Due to the factr that this area is unprotected, it is quickly injured with acidic substances.

Furthermore, gastritis is associated with profound hypochlorhydria and a failure of ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice (Dixon, 2001). Therefore, there is a need for initiating mucosal defensive factors, which neutralize the back diffusion of hydrogen ion into the oesophageal tissue (De Giorgi et al., 2006). Moreover, this condition might be diagnosed with endoscopy and pH monitoring. After diagnosing, one may propose the treatment involving antacids or secretion blockers. As a result, decreased secretion would protect the gastrointestinal tract from the injury.

Consequently, the paper proposes a mind map in order to trace the basic causes of gastritis as well as the process of its diagnosing and treatment (Figure 1).

image1.png

Figure 1. Gastritis mindmap.

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Thus, the described motility dysfunction is manifested through such symptoms as vomiting, nausea or indigestion. This paper focuses on secretion-associated factors of gastritis. However, they may be aggravated with bacterial infection or weaknesses and injuries of the organ tissue. Additionally, one proposes diagnosing the dysfunction with endoscopy or blood test and treatment with antacids in order to regulate the secretion. Afterwards, the patient should keep a diet that excludes food provoking influx of acids. The proposed measures are viewed as the general pattern of treatment of the disorders of motility.

Conclusion

Summarizing the presented information, the paper concludes that gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and gastritis have peculiarities of diagnosing. It is evident that not many people are aware of the specificities of a normally functioning gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the study analyzed the typical causes of disorders that result in the selected gastrointestinal diseases. The factor concerned in the paper is the increased secretion of acids and enzymes, which cause the injuries of the tissue of the tract. Furthermore, one suggests that typical diagnosing of the discussed pathology is blood tests, endoscopy and fecal occult blood test. Such tests should be performed after the revealed symptoms, including vomiting, indigestion, and nausea and appetite loss. In this respect, patients ought to seek medical treatment when such symptoms were detected instead of attempting performing self-treatment.

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