After World War 2, the issue of globalization started cropping up. Globalization came along with urbanization (Navarro,2004). Globalization can be explained as the tendency of the different countries of the world, going beyond their geographic boundaries and relating with each other. Some people say that it is equivalent to making the world a small village. Urbanization is the increase in the number of people residing in the city as compared to the residents in the rural areas.
A country whereby 50% or more of its residents live in the urban areas, then it can be referred to as an urbanized country. Some pioneers of urbanization were Britain and some other European countries. The third world countries are urbanizing so rapidly (Sernau, 2009. pp. 229-232). Urbanization has some advantages such as reducing the poverty levels of people by providing them with jobs in the city, and hosting important government properties. However its package of disadvantages outweighs the advantages. This is what we shall be discussing in this paper.
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The factors contributing to this rapid increase in the number of people living in the urban areas include the following. To begin with, there a decrease in the number of resources in the rural areas as most of the resources is exhausted. People prefer moving to the urban areas to look for jobs. Secondly, most people believe that urban life is better than rural life (Sernau, 2009). Urbanization life, which is a very wrong notion. There is also the natural cause which is an increase in birth rate and a decrease in death rate. The UN predicted that by the year 2030 sixty percent of the population will be living in the urban areas.
To begin with, the rapid increase in population in the urban areas especially in the third world countries does not give the governments’ sufficient time to plan and cater for the demand of the growing population(Sernau, 2009.p.235). In contrast to the pioneers of urbanization, these countries cities grow so fast. For example a city such as Mexico, has a population of more than 18 million people. The growth of the population is estimated to be more than 26 thousand in the next five years. The facilities such as health facilities, water and sanitation, schools, electricity, and housing is not planned to cater for the needs of the increased population.
As a result of lack of sufficient facilities for the city dwellers, we realize that the living standard of the people is compromised. They tend to lack quality health care facilities and so their health is compromised (Raphael & Bryant, 2006. P. 45). At the same time housing is a really big problem. Many of this people live in very poorly structured housing due to lack of early preparation by the government. The houses are more often than not poorly sanitized and with deficiency in water supply, putting the health of the people.
The rate of crime in the urban areas tends to be high. This can be related to the increased population, and lack of jobs for the increased population, which leaves the youngsters with no option but to steal in order to meet their basic needs. Some indulge in some illegal businesses such as drugs trafficking and prostitution in order to survive in the cities.
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Another factor is the issue of pollution. This is due to the rate at which factories are increasing, in order to provide jobs for the growing population. It can also be related to an increase in the number of dumping sites for people’s waste products. The increasing number of motor vehicles also plays a big part in the pollution of the environment. Environmental pollution leads to harm on the people’s health (Raphael & Bryant, 2006. P. 75). For example due to air pollution leads to respiratory problems, and can also lead to cancer. Pollution to the soil has also led to pollution of the food crops planted in the urban areas. This puts the health of many people at risk of many diseases. (Raphael & Bryant, 2006. P. 78). Water pollution is not exempted. Most rivers in the urban areas are polluted with wastes from factories and oil spillage, killing most the marine animals and also putting the human health at risk after consumption of the polluted animals.
The other problem is the nutrition of the city dwellers. Due to inability to access farm crops easily, most of the people in the urban areas prefer to eat junk foods which cause more harm than good to their body. This is caused by ready availability of the junk food. While some can afford to buy the junk, others cannot afford to buy it. Some survive on the dumpsite food, due to lack of sufficient money to meet their needs (Evans,et.al,1994).
The land in urban areas is also a scares resource.it cannot accommodate the growing population and hence most of the people in these areas are homeless(Sernau, 2009). The governments of these countries are also not in a position to provide homes for these people. There is also the displacement of wild beasts from their natural habitat as people around the urban areas move to the neighboring areas to live there. This shows that urbanization does not only have a negative effect on the human beings but also on the other living beings in the surrounding environment.
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In conclusion, it is important for the government leaders of different countries, to discourage people from moving to urban areas and also improving the life in rural areas in order to control the increasing population, and also in order to overcome the problems coming along with urbanization. The countries should also try catering for the needs of the people in the urban areas, despite the increase in population.