The title of the book from which the essay has been adopted is 'built to change' by Edward E. Lawler and Christopher G. Worley. Lawler is a professor at the University of Southern California. He is considered an expert in human management in the organization and has received many awards. Worley is a research scientist at the University of Southern California too. He has been recognized in the field of organization development. He has Co-authored other books with other writers too and won awards. The essay is about how organizations should structure their reward system to the employees so that it can favor performance and change. Companies have to take into consideration the importance of human capital now more than before. To them, companies that are progressing are those that are able to cope with the changing environment by persuading their workforce to adapt to change (Lawler & Worley, 2006). The expectancy theory best explains the reaction of people to change if they expect to get better awards in future. The key is to motivate employees to better performance and positive attitude towards change and nothing motivated better than rewards. There are rewards systems in companies that do not work; they include merit-based payment. With this kind of payment system, it becomes hard to motivate the individual to perform better because it is difficult to match performance with merit, and if a company is serious about change, they will end up letting go of the merit paid non-performers. The reward systems that are preferred are the use of bonuses, stock and person based payment as compared to job-based payment. Bonuses motivate individuals to work harder and to accept changes (Lawler & Worley, 2006). While broad-based stock ownership has shown to bring unity and encourage leadership. The essay is merely informing and not showing companies how to create this reward system and what challenges they may get while implementing the reward systems. It should have given direction on how to smoothly change from one reward system that does not work to another that works. The work though has been organized well as the author first lays the background of organizations in that earlier years and how they differ with today's organization, which have to keep up with the always-changing environment.
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The review is on leadership styles, a study conducted by Hanna Kurland, Hilla Peretz and Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz. Kurland is based in the faculty of education in the Academic College of education in Tivon, Israel. Peretz is based in the department if industrial engineering and management at Ort Braude College in Karmiel, Israel. Hertz-Lazarowitz is based at Haifa University found in Haifa, Israel. The research objective is to show the influence of principal's leadership style to how the school's learning is organized. This is shown by looking at the various schools' visions and how these visions are set. A principal with a transformational leadership style will differ from that one with a transactional style or the laissez-faire style. The study uses three hypotheses to test what leadership style has the best or least influence on the school's learning organization or vision. In addition, to show how vision meditates the relationship between the leadership style and organization of learning. The research was conducted in elementary schools in Israel. The assumption was that teacher's tenure lasted for a period of three years with which they can have already made an impact. The tools used were mostly questionnaires answered by teachers. They mainly evaluated their schools' learning organization, vision and the principal's leadership style. The sample strategy was to choose those schools that have had a principal for more than three years. While a larger percentage, of teachers selected, were classroom teacher because they are more involved in the schools' organization. The main sources of error were translation errors when the questionnaires were being translated to Hebrew. There was also a lot of bias since the questionnaires were answered on a personal basis. However, studies have shown that self-answered method of collection of data is not that wrong and that information from such sources can be reliable (Lovelace et al, 2001). The sample size was also small and limits the use of information to the wider school system. The study though showed that transformational leadership style had a better impact on the school organization as compared to transactional or laissez-faire style, and this reflected itself in the school vision. This shows, therefore, that principals in schools should try to emulate the transformational leadership style so that they can steer their schools into greater achievements, which in turn, will benefit the children.
Leadership is defined as a person's ability to enlist the support of others to accomplish a certain task in hand (Nort house, 2009). We often hear of great leaders and how much they have accomplished but do not get the whole story of the troubles they have undergone to achieve a good result. There is no leader who does not face obstacles in their quest to become leaders. There are very many obstacles of effective leadership. They range from obstacles within the self those from others and those from the environment. Some of these obstacles are easy to change while others are difficult to overcome. A good leader though is one who is able to take note of the obstacle hindering him from achieving his/her goals and coming up with methods to solve these obstacles. A good leader should also be able to listen to others; those above him in rank and those whom he/she is leading because it is through them that he will be able to overcome. This essay will show obstacles that leaders face on their journey to achieve great leadership, it is going to also show the difference between effective leaders and those that fail to be effective. The differences in their personalities and in the methods or approaches they use to lead others. It is also going to demonstrate by giving strong examples of leaders who have excelled in their leadership roles for instance like Jack Welch.
Leadership is about creating a way in which to encourage people to participate in something (Northouse, 2009). It greatly differs from supervision but at the equivalent time contain a relationship with management. (Greenleaf & Spears, 2002) pointed out that leadership is more concerned with meeting the vision or the target, while the management stresses on the implementation of the vision (Lucia and Achua, 2009). A leader is one who is oriented to driving change to the people and helping them to achieve that change by motivating them. He also participates in the changing action together with the people he is leading.' A leader shows by example' (Northouse, 2009). Evidence shows that leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses and are able to learn from them and to grow (Northouse, 2009). They still want to help others to also do the same (Polelle, 2007). Writes that a leader is keen to develop a system of relationships and sees this as an opportunity for personal growth in line to the companies' growth. The leadership-oriented organization has been known to succeed and perform better. In fact, they respond to change faster than the management-oriented organization.
Management is the act of people getting together to achieve desired goals and objectives. (Drucker, 1999) also, is the coordination of activities in accordance to companies' policies in order to achieve goals (Witzel, 2004). Managers are concerned with segmenting areas of responsibilities and assigning them to particular individuals (Witzel, 2004). Evidence also shows that managers are more concerned about the negative outcome and ignore the positive side of things. Leaders, in contrast, tend to see the positivity of outcomes and positive aspects in other people. (Kotts, Roper & Payant, 2010) says that managers rarely think of their subordinates, they only adhere to what top management says. Theories show that managers are more concerned of empowering themselves and not others (Kotts et al, 2010). They also tend to protect their position and let it be known to others. Information sharing is also a problem to a manager than to a leader because the manager is out to benefit himself but a leader cares about those that he leads. (Drucker, 2008) say that if managers can learn to manage through leadership a company's performance can highly improve, than when managers are just rigid and technical in implementing the companies goals and policies. The literature and studies on management and leadership shows the two to differ yet compare at some level. The main difference though is in the skills possessed by each one of them, a leader has leadership skills, while a manager may have gone to school and studied management. In addition, leadership skills tend to come naturally in some people and not others. In management, any individual with the merit and skills can thrive.
Research methodology must not be confused with methods used in research, as they are completely different. (Kumar, 2005) Research methodology refers to activities conducted throughout the research process from the beginning to the end. Methods, on the other hand, refer to tools and techniques that have been used during the research. Tools range from the thing like questionnaires to recording tapes, while techniques are interviewing and observational. The research objective is to find out whether or not poverty has an impact on brain development and learning. The first and a major step is the identification of what type of research we are intending to carry out, in our case, it can be a correrational research as it is attempting to find out whether a relationship exist between poverty and brain development. The second step is formulating our problem which can be poverty influence on brain development . The next step is to conduct a literature review of all materials that have been written before about the problem in hand. The objectives are then developed; our main objective would be to find out if a relationship exists. Thereafter is the preparation of the research design things like our sample size, sampling methods and tools to be used in gathering information on the research. The data collection then begins, if for instance, we are using questionnaires we give them out to our chosen sample for them to answer. After collection then the analysis of data begins, after which we then interpret and write a final report on our findings.
My task was to complete different types of academic writing ranging from critical analysis to writing of literature review and methodological review. This exercise was to test various skills ranging from analyzing skills to writing skills was required to write short essays on different topics At the beginning, I thought it was just a simple test only to find out it was filled with lots of task that I had to perform, but it turned out to demand for a lot more. I had to read essays that were long, analyze them critically, and adhere to the number of words given, which I must say it was such a task. I found myself writing too much at some points exceeding the words limit. I was also required to write a methodological review on a leadership style research conducted in Israel. This was touching, as I have to learn about Israel school system. I also learnt on what leadership styles are required for a leader to bring change and development. In another task, I had to describe a research methodology on conducting a research on poverty relation to brain development and learning had to compare leadership and management by writing a literature review. I also had to write an introduction on an essay about obstacles to effective leadership. The experience though was gratifying, I found myself learning many things that I had no awareness before but now I know. In the end of it all, I am glad I took the test because I know I have learnt a lot and improved on my writing skills am glad I decided to take the academic test because I have increased my knowledge various subject and improved my skills.