Definition and connection between Proletariat, bourgeoisie, and exploitation
A proletariat is an individual with no ownership of a means of production and relies on selling his or her labor power as a means of subsistence of the means of production. A bourgeoisie is a person who has attitudes and behavior conformed to the standards and conventions of the middle class and belongs to the property owning class or lower state bureaucrats in the communist states. Exploitation is the Utilization of other people’s efforts by others. Proletariat and bourgeoisie are linked due to exploitation hence occupy conflicting positions in a society. This leads lead to a class system defined by property ownership which vests power to a bourgeoisie to exclude proletariats from property ownership. The bourgeoisie owns means of production such as factory building and depends on his profit while the proletariat is exploited and owns their labor and sell it for a wage.
Definition and the connection between gender, sex, and social construction
Gender is a social construct specifying socially and culturally prescribed responsibilities followed by men and women. Social construction is a construct of a society focusing on its dependence on contingent variables of social lives. Social construction of gender moves from socialization as the origin of gender disparities because men and women are more than a simple biological fact. Sex is biological quality by which men and women are classified as male or female depending on their reproductive organs and functions. It is the biological fact that has social implications because women comprises of a distinct social group not related to their feminine nature. Gender refers to ways in which culture reformulates as a beginning of the fact of nature or a set of arrangements that transforms a society’s biological sexuality into products of human roles in men and women meet their sexual needs.
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An explanation of the notion of circulation of elitesoffered by Pareto
Circulation of elites is a basic axiom that implies to a state where individuals are unequal physically, intellectually and morally. In human societies and groupings or strata, some individuals are more gifted than others .The most gifted individuals are the elites. Elites are the class of individuals having the highest indices in their branch of activity. Thus, the social conflict paradigm is based on the complexity of the society that is characterized by inequality among individuals and a conflict that generates social change. Social conflict is present in all aspect in our societies, in sports, politics, and various social engagements. According to Marx, social conflict theory can be described as favoritism since the society tends to show favoritism to the elite or prestigious members of a particular society. In the world today, social inequality is evident in situations of race, ethnicity, gender, and age.
Pareto described the term elite to refer to a class of people who are most qualified and have the highest indices in their branch of activity. They can further be divided into a governing class and the non governing elite. The governing elite are those individuals in the society who are directly or indirectly involved in governance, and the latter comprising the rest. The concept of circulation of elites is vital in understanding social conflict in many states. For example in Canada, the first characteristic is social inequality, referring to unequal distribution of money, gender, class, and age. In Canada, people who embrace the social conflict perspective have a belief that the qualities of social conflict should not lead to favored treatment. For instance, the poor single mothers in Canada who have become large at the present time and do not have appropriate jobs to sustain them. They remain poor due to lack of finances. The other quality is social class conflict defined by the amount of education, income, and status people have in the society. In Canada, attaining education is one of the most effective avenues of affecting means of ensuring employment and increase in income and standards of living which contributes to an individual being in higher status or social class. Thus, single mothers do not have appropriate means of income in order to pursue higher education hence; they are regarded as being of a lower class in the society. If this the status quo, then single mothers in Canada and else where in the world will have little hope and continue living below the poverty line. The third quality is social change, meaning that the inequalities and social class contributes towards social change. Single mothers have been accorded different types of financial assistance by the federal and provincial governments who live below poverty line. They have been allowed to apply for student loans for them to have access to higher education and get appropriate job skills. They have also been accorded grants to reduce for the financial burden. In addition the government provides low income families with tax relief and subsidized day care.
In response to social class conflict, Canada now has a representation of women in the cabinet, the ‘Women’s Equality Minister’, there are other lobby groups such as ‘Women’s Economic Network’ that assists single mothers in improving their standards of living. Thus, through the analysis of the social conflict paradigm, there are various forms of inequalities in our societies. Issues of social inequalities emerge and are dealt with. Analysis of social conflict is important because it enables individuals to realize means of resolving issues regarding inequalities in our societies such as the problem of poverty experienced by single mothers in Canada. Social inequality is a reality in Canada but through its analysis from social conflict perspective indicates possible solutions that can be used to rectify the problems that surround the issue.
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An explanation of the notion collective conscience, offered by David Emile Durkheim
Collective consciousness is a term used to refer to shared beliefs in a society describing developmental attitudes as requirements to shape and operated a unifying force within a group of people or society. According to Durkeim, collective consciousness refers to the shared beliefs and moral attitudes that can operate as a unifying force within society. A society is seen to be largely responsible for shaping individuals conscience. It refers to collective conscience of the society or a group of people that an individual belongs to. It is a fact that there are common ideas shared and common moral values within a society and very difficult to determine in the current civilization due to great separation in the division of labor, and at the same time, there is a parallel phenomenon that people are more autonomous while depending on the society. Currently, collective consciousness is less common in peoples cultures due to more attention centered on individualism and transition to organic solidarity. According to Durkeim, here are two forms of basic solidarity, that is, the traditional society defined by mechanical solidarity and the present society that is characterized by organic solidarity. Thus, social solidarity is a tie that binds individuals together within a society. The two forms of solidarity are linked in sense that the present society is moving towards a direction of social solidarity culture that is characterized by urbanization, fusion of markets, as well as, cultural and social structural basis. Organic solidarity is achieved by interdependences originating from ideas of specialized work from moral and ethics between individuals and ultimately makes individuals to rely on one another in the work places. From this perspective, collective consciousness refers to the condition of a subject within the society as a whole, and how an individual views himself or herself as part of a given society. Consciousness is a term used to define internal knowledge or conviction, such as ones own innocence, guilt and deficiencies, meaning, to be mentally conscious or aware of anything.
Class consciousness is composed of diverse elements such as personal experiences and group images, feelings, ideas, preferences and attitudes, values and standards. It has many layers some deep and some more on the surface. It has both collective and individual aspects. Its dimensions stretches to the past while some are pertinent to the future. There is no class consciousness without a broader conception of social structure. On the other hand, collective consciousness is an intersubjective understanding of common norms and values among a group of individuals. It describes a determinate social system in which the totality of beliefs and sentiments are average to the common society member. It possesses distinctive reality due to its non material social construction, external to and coercive of individuals in a particular social order. Collective consciousness operates as an external force over the group members and exists outside an individuals biological and psyche spheres and can only be understood through the consciousness of an individual in the community due to social construct, however it can only be realized through class or individual consciousness. Collective consciousness regulates all the social worlds and defines what is acceptable and what is not for instance the attitudes observed in sub-cultures.
Sub cultures are defined as modes of expression or lifestyles that are developed by groups, subordinate structural positions in response to dominant meaning systems reflecting a group’s attempt to solve structural contradictions that arises from a wider societal context meaning systems. There are various youth sub-cultures that involve fashion and are associated with different designers, styles and clothing. However, different youth sub-cultures have been identified by what the youth wear and in the manner of their dressing. These sub-cultures tend to favor different clothes designers as some designers are associated with a particular group. For example of we consider punk, the designers associated with punk have been Vivienne Westwood, and her shop was run on Kings Road in London, which is said Punk began. The shop was named SEX which was controversial at the time and from where they designed, made and sold the clothing. This fashion was copied all over the world. Hence, it is important to understand that, with different socio-economic groups, sub culture groups take different characteristics based on various factors. For instance, within the working class families, the youth will tend to have more interaction with their parents and will seem not to rebel their parent in youth in the middle or upper classes.
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Vivien Westwood style of “Punk” is a better example to understand the impact of youth sub cultures in society. The designer was associated with the upper class, known to be at the centre of the British fashion and regarded as the most influential and inventive designer. Through this analysis, it is evident that all cultures are produced by social conditions that depend on social class. Youth cultures are attached to social class and the social classes are currently disintegrated, although Punk as a sub culture still exists today. Thus, it appears that the social changes made us to the composition of members within a sub culture due to values, beliefs, and common activities shared between individuals.
Punk started as a lifestyle, a music genre, and a fashion statement. The fashion of Punk by Vivien Westwood indicates that the previous societies trends are changing and fresh ideas are emerging. Punk style has various collections ranging from BDSM fashion, clothing, jewelry, bondage gear, make-ups and hair, lavatory chains, bicycles, safety pins. The essential elements in punk included the adoption of traditional elements having Scottish design like the tartan fabric. Use of traditional elements made an overall effect of punk appealing. The fashion was a gateway for the earlier years which was an expression of youth sub-culture. It showed hoe the children of revolution had an identity more so like today. This is because of having a need within the realm of social status from the punks. This controversial attire was created to be noticed. The attire through the art of clothes and attire took influence fro the previous ages and gave a look of what could only be produced from London. Hence, fashion has been taken as a reflection of collective consciousness because it reflects the thoughts and feelings of majority in a society and the subversive character of the minority. Thus, all collective forms of synergistic relationships with fashion, informs and influences individuals in various turns. It is also described as a manifestation of intellectual and cultural trend of postmodernism, because it depends on newness.
It is a reality that many young designers are now breaking out with the romantic ideology which was initiated in the earlier years but the ideas are still very much present. The youth of the present generation are distracted by the media through visual propaganda that they belong and should be into and the fashion they should be wearing. They are drawn into a sub-culture because the past trends affect the youths today reflecting the image of youth sub-culture. The idea of sub-culture existed in earlier years and is still apparent in today’s societies, with social groups having different attitudes and values with significant roles to play in the fashion world. Among the youth, fashion acts as an identity and is territorial. Among the youth, this lifestyle is considered collective consciousness since. The punks were forms of magical resistance to the socio-economic problems faced by the young working class. However, a small minority of the youth are involved in the deviant subcultures since majority is currently living ordinary, mundane and conformist lives. Youth sub-cultures are seen as manipulation of the media as a result are part of commercial interest for generating income.