The theories that are there in sociology provide us with the different ways in which we view at issues that come in the society. We live in a social world and we, therefore, have to have a way of viewing the problems and the issues that we encounter in it in a social perspective. A perspective is a way of looking at the world while theories are the collection of propositions, which are related together and designed so that they answer a problem that is there in the society. Sociological theories help us to predict the social world that we live in.
There are three perspectives that are used in sociological perspectives(Elliott & Mendelson, 2010). These are the structural-functionalist, the conflict perspective and the symbolic interactionist perspective. This paper will look at a social problem basing on the structural-functionalist and the conflict perspective. The social issue that I will analyze is that of teenage pregnancy.
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According to this theory, the society is viewed to be a system, which is interconnected together so that equilibrium can be attained. An example is that each of the institutions plays some role in bringing equilibrium. The family institution is responsible, for example, with reproducing, nurturing and instilling the social and communication skills to children, the economics provides for the distributions and consumption of goods, and politics gives a way for governing society members(Giddens, 1988). Basing on this perspective, it can be said that teenage pregnancy has affected the other components of the system. It is common, for example, to see that there is an increase in single mothers and single parenting due to this. This social issue has caused some imbalance and people are not able to make families because of teenage pregnancy.
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From the structural-functionalist perspective, teenage pregnancy has increased poverty in the society; this, in essence, is affecting the economy. Due to single parenting, the children that are born out of wedlock will end up being poor because most single parents, especially women, are overwhelmed with care. This is the reason as to why the economy is affected by the teenage problem social issue. Another problem that is experienced with teenage pregnancy is that the education component is affected. This attributed to the fact that with single parents, the children do not get the required and the necessary guidance as regarding their careers. Most of them, therefore, end up being abandoned to work on their own way in their careers; most of them fail(Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 2010).
Regarding morality, it can also be said that as many victims of teenage pregnancy are young and poor children still in school, most of them turn to prostitution in order to fend for their kids. The prostitution is therefore affected in this. There is no longer a sense of equilibrium in eth society.
Unlike the structural-culturalist perspective, in this perspective, the theory focuses on the conflicting issues that are found in the society. All components in the society are fighting for power and values. An example is that due to power, there are many and conflicting issues that come with it. One social problem that can be found in the world today is abortion. The people who are against abortion and respect life regarding it as sacred will support this case. On the other hand, the people who support abortion and argue that women have a choice and freedom to choose will support otherwise(Elliott & Mendelson, 2010).
The social problems that can be associated with this are that there are people who prefer family planning methods while others are against it. Those who are against argue that reproduction is God-given and therefore should be left to take a natural course while those for it argue that children bearing should be controlled so that life-sustainability can be attained and that life for the children should be improved.
To solve the social problems that we encounter in our society today, we have to analyze the problem basing on the appropriate social theory. It is from here that the solution will be arrived at. Social theories help to have at different views and problems and provide the lasting solution to the problems that arise.