The population structure of a country is defined as a reflection of how it is made up of male, female and people of different ages. This includes: sex structure, marital status, literacy and educational attainments (Rajendra, 2000). In a society everything is influenced by demography and demography conversely affects socioeconomic position of everything in the society. Therefore, understanding of population structures and characteristics facilitates planning and provisioning of resources.
Mexico Population Pyramid Comparison 2011 and 2050
The population pyramid of Mexico for 2011 displays a smooth pyramid showing the greatest proportion at the base occupied by the ages 0-19 years. From ages 19 onwards, it forms a smooth pyramid with decreasing population towards the top. For the 2050 pyramid, it forms a jagged pyramid with almost no pyramid between ages 0-60 where the population sizes for each bracket is similar.
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For 2011, the group with the largest proportion is the 15-19 age groups taking almost 5% of the entire population. Their birth years would be in the early 1990s. The smallest proportion for the 2011 population pyramid is occupied by the 100+ age bracket taking les than 0.1% of the population. For the 2050 population, it forms a jagged pyramid with mostly uniform population across all the age groups with the 50-54 age groups taking the largest proportion. Birth years for these 2050 cohorts would be the 2000s. Nonetheless, the smallest bracket (100+) forms a slightly larger proportion of the 2050 population pyramid.
There is a distinctive difference between the 2011 population pyramid and the 2050 population pyramid. The 2011 population pyramid has wider base that progressively decreases towards the top at regular rate depicting a young growing population. However, the 2050 pyramid has a wider and a larger base cutting across the 0-60 age brackets showing an aging population. This would probably mean a healthy population with low birth rate, low mortality and long life expectancy.
Factors Affecting Differences in the Population Pyramids
There are several factors that affect population structures and by extension population pyramids: they include differences in birth rates; also known as natality rate it is the rate at which new individuals are added to a particular population by reproduction (birth of young ones or hatching of eggs or germination of seeds/spores) (John, 1999). In the case of 2011, birth rates determining the population structure are substantially different from the 2050 birthrates. 2011 experiences high birth rates and higher mortality in comparison to 2050. Differences in life expectancy: At 2011, in Mexico, infant mortality is higher; life expectancy is comparatively lower to 2050. Populations in 2050 live remarkably longer while birth rates are low. These factors result in substantially different population structures and pyramids. Differences in age composition: population distribution varies for both scenarios; in 2050 there is an almost similar age bracket size while in 2011, age bracket sizes decreases substantially with increasing number of years. Population pyramids reflect population structures that are determined by socioeconomic factors. Socioeconomic factors vary from time to time hence the difference in the population pyramids.
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The 2050 population Pyramid
This population pyramid reflects a negative population growth rate. Negative or zero natural population growth means that a country has more deaths than births or an even number of deaths and births (Rajendra, 2000). The almost inverted population pyramid indicates a declining population; it shows that the number of old people is higher than the number of young people in a population. In a population this indicates negative population growth rate.
Demographic Transitions Mexico
Demographic Transition is a model that describes change in population over time. It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson. It came about as a result of observed changes in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so (John, 1999). It is an idealized, composite picture of population change. The model is a generalization that may not accurately describe all individual cases.
Stage 1 is associated with pre Modern times, and is characterized by a balance between birth rate and death rates. Stage 2 sees a rise in population caused by a decline in the death rate while the birth rate remains high, or perhaps even rises slightly. Stage 3 takes the population towards stability through a declining birth rate. Stage 4 is characterized by stability. At this stage the population age structure has become older: Even in 2050, there will be traces in the age structure of the rapid growth that characterized the generations born during the second half of the twentieth century. The consequences of this demographic past are evident today, but they will become even more pronounced in the coming years when the ageing process intensifies.
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