There are several paradoxes that affect the ability oh Homeland Security to operate. First is the Hardened Border paradox which has resulted into the construction of great walls throughout history. The great walls such as the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall in German have resulted into failure in blocking forces that led to their construction. Thus, there have been cases of delays in the borders that have contributed to smuggling of narcotics. The drug peddlers are young people who are less skilled and only paid peanuts as payoffs for peddling the drugs across the congested borders.

The other paradox is the Open Border Paradox between US and Canada which has been in contrast to an approach used by US in managing the Southern Borders. With respect to Washington’s northern border, the security has been optimized through keeping the border open and making efforts to improve international cooperation. It has been impossible to harden conditions at the border in terms of security and economically. In addition, the closure of the border due to terrorism has insignificant effects and only shows the involvement of military in the fight against terrorism. Hence the federal government has made tremendous efforts through imposing a blockade in the country’s economy. This contributed to the conversion of meager investments of terrorism and poses lethal effects to people’s lives leading to negative implications in the American economy.

Therefore it is necessary to manage the borders in an effective way in order to meet and satisfy Homeland Security imperatives to reduce the potential risks in the global and hemispheric trade lanes and avoid drug smuggling and ferrying of war weapons of terrorism and narcotics to US. This will increase security and minimize the occurrence of terrorism attacks.

Intergovernmental relations, levels, legal issues, and government entities working together

In managing gender equality goals, there are a number of issues that are necessary to be considered in the decentralization framework, these includes the fiscal autonomy of sub-national government, the autonomy of sub-national governments for local development planning access to funds to have an impact on local development and a clear distribution of responsibilities in the national and sub-national governments.

Concerning development issues, inefficient resources and financial autonomy have negative impacts on the ability of sub-national government to deal with issues of poverty, and gender disparities that exist within localities. Thus, there should be defined roles regarding funding and the implementation of roles between the national and sub-national governments to enhance resource availability in all government levels. However, the structure of intergovernmental financial systems always face obstacles such as lack of resources and  financing of expenditures in the sub-national government levels, in addition there is lack of autonomy in the sub-national government levels to acquire taxes to yield some income to meet the requirements of the localities. The resources of sub-national governments are obtained from the federal government’s fiscal transfers from taxation. Intergovernmental transfer systems are not transparent due to manipulation by politicians causing uncertainties on the parts of the sub-national governments. Furthermore, such uncertainties always have negative implications to financial planning and inefficient allocation of resources to respond to the needs of the citizens. Federal government agencies have the responsibility of setting rules or legislations, forming a regulatory framework, designing appropriate policies, and monitoring. Thus, the central; government has the responsibility of putting up standards to enhance an effective implementation of policies.

The constitutional ground for NCLB

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 2002 is a legal Act but has very many strategic mistakes due to transgression of limits on federal power provided in the constitution. NCLB Act provides inadequate outcome because it results into wastage of funds that can be channeled to the education of children. It also distorts the attention from appropriate reforms in the market that would have achieved its goals. NCLB is regarded as a bad idea by many people even if it were constitutional or its effects in the expansion of school choice. In fact, NCLB does not create a meaningful school choice since it requires districts to offer free but private tutoring services under certain conditions. Even though private tutoring can be important, it offers services to a small segment of eligible students. Based on its constitutionality, the yearly progress provisions requires states to provide  a percentage of students to obtain proficiency in math, reading and tests in science subjects in future. However, the program is considered inflexible according to the adequate yearly progress because it expects schools to rely on various expectations prescriptive in nature, hence does not provide for evaluation of children’s individual performance due to its reliance on achievement targets that are absolute increasing the likelihood of failure in various schools.

NCLB problems include federal underfunding at the state level, even though states are required to comply with all NCLB provisions or they may be locked out of federal funding. The effect is that many states have decided to reduce their budgets in the subjects that are not tested. In addition teachers are forced to provide test at a narrow range and ignores some important subjects including foreign languages, history and science. Problems with the standardized tests occur since states set their own NCLB tests at very low standards, hence making the tests very simple leading to poor educational quality which cannot be evaluated by objective testing.