Introduction

The organizational behavior management (OBM) is the outcome of combining the principles of psychology of applied behavior analysis and the experimental behavior analysis to promote success in organizations and to enhance the safety and other benefits of the employees. This is all about the development and evaluation of the performance improvement ways that are based on the principles of behavior in organizations. The principles focus on improving the performance of individual or group within the setting of the organization be it a business organization, industrial setting or human service setting. The ultimate aim of management of organizational behavior is to set up technology of high quality performance to enhance improvement and organizational change whereby the employees become more productive and happy as well as the organizations, which becomes more effective and efficient in achieving their goals (Petrides & Furnham, 2000, p320). The interventions of management of organizational behavior have been diversified including working with the psychologists, therapists to enhance performance and increase billable hours in order to increase production and to facilitate the satisfaction of the organization as well as the contentment of the employees where they may not wish to end their careers elsewhere. The main technologies employed by the organizational behavior management include the management of the performance and analysis of the systems behavior. Objective The ultimate aim of this paper is to examine the management of organizational behavior and its impact on the organizational success. This is done in four distinct chapters where chapter 1 is all about the philosophical underpinnings in the field of organizational behavior with focus on the employee commitment in the organization, their behavior, motivation and satisfaction that leads to the organizational success. This chapter is well supported with various precise theories that talks about the employee commitment, behavior, motivation and satisfaction (Roman& Boyce, 2001, p57). Chapter 2 is all about emotional intelligence in enhancing the commitment of employees, their behavior, motivation and satisfaction. It contains an in-depth analysis and understanding of all concepts of emotional intelligence in accelerating organizational success. It also looks at two major researchers of emotional intelligence, their works and comparison of their works. Chapter 3 discusses the use and application of leadership in improving and sustaining the outcomes of the organization. It is all about leadership issues and their significance in enhancing the organizational success. Chapter 4 is the demonstration of the understanding of all the concepts learned at the Hodges University concerning the management of organizational behavior and its impact on organizational success.

Chapter 1

Philosophical underpinnings in the field of organizational behavior

Employee commitment in organizational management

The organizational commitment portrayed by the organizational employees in the field of organizational behavior refers to the psychological attachment of the employee in an organization (Houmanfar, Herbst & Chase, 2003, p65). This can be compared to other work-related attitudes like job satisfaction and the organizational identification which refers to the extend by which an employee experiences a sense of oneness with their organization. Note that the scientists have come up with several nuanced explanations of organizational commitment as well as many measurement scales beyond the general sense of oneness.

Models of commitment in organizations

According to the research done by two scholars; Meyer and Allen’s (1991), the three main components of commitment models showed that can describe the commitment of an employee to the organization are as follows.
  • Affective commitment – refers to the employees’ positive emotional devotion to the organization. The employee who is strongly devoted to the organizational work is said to be committed affectively with the goals of the organization and does not wish to leave the organization at any given time. Such an employee does that because he or she wishes to, willingly without being forced.
  •  Continuance Commitment- this is where the employee commits to the organizational work because he or she understands the cost of losing the membership of the organization and this includes both social and economic costs that would be encountered. The social cost refers to the friendship relations with the co-workers. Therefore, the employee remains an organizational member because he or she has to. There is no otherwise.
  • Normative Commitment – it is where the employee commits to remain working in the organization because of the compulsion feelings that comes from several sources. For example the organization may have taken the responsibility to train an individual who then feels obligated to work for the organization devotedly to repay the debt. It may as well have developed as a family or socialization process even before the employee begun working in the organization thus making the person to be loyal to the organization (Nielsen, Hrivnak & Shaw, 2009, p555). Hence, he remains in the organization because he or she ought to. There are three main employee discharge types; intellectual commitment (full), emotional commitment (full) and financial commitment (phased).
Rules to enhance organizational commitment Commit to people – put in writing, employ professional managers and walk the talk. Clarify and communicate the mission of the organization – make the mission charismatic, employee value-based appointment practices Guarantee organizational justice – set a precise grievance procedure; organize an extensive two-way communications. Community of practice – build value based homogeneity, stress barnrising, teamwork and cross-utilization; making people work together. Support employee development – entrust to realizing; issue out first- year job challenge; augment and authorize, issue out developmental pursuits; enhance employee security with no guarantees; promote from within. Key drivers to developmental

There are some key accelerators of the perception of the employees and their attitudes about the work. They contribute greatly and to higher levels of the organizational performance (Petrides & Furnham, 2000, p320). Most people and organizations concur that pay and benefits are some of the most critical and essential factors in employees decisions to stay with or leave an organization. The table below shows some of the main key components that drives the employee commitment.

Importance of employee behavior/relations in organizational management

Sustaining a healthy relationship among the employees in an organization is a precondition for the success of an organization. Human satisfaction and high productivity are the key components that build strong employee relations. The relations of the employees are all about tackling some specific issues concerning individuals that may come up out of or influence the work scenario. It is no doubt that t safe and healthy working environment contributes greatly towards building strong employee relations as well as their devotion to the organization, effective communication, and employee motivational incentives (Podsakoff, Blume, Whiting & Podsakoff, 2009, p122). Healthy employee relations enhance motivated, efficient and productive employees that in turn increase the sales level of the organization or its competitive advantage. This is what sums up to the employee behavior in an organization because once the employees behave well, knowing their responsibilities and are committed to meeting the goals of the organization, then such an organization is said to have a strong competitive advantage in the market field due to high yields or services that are influenced by the employees morale. Good employee relations enhanced by positive attitudes and suitable employee behaviors in an organization shows that the employees need to feel positive concerning their job, identity and being part of such a great organization. This can as well be seen in institutions such as schools and colleges where the teachers or tutors are responsible for the performance of the students (Gilbreath & Harris 2002, p330). When the school or class performs better, all the praise goes to teachers or tutors who are said to be well committed to their jobs and maintained good student behaviors and obedience that lead to the good performance. When the class performs poorly, all the blame goes to the teacher or tutor as well due to being irresponsible and lazy thus contributing to the poor performance.  Despite the significance of strong and healthy employee relations, there are some situations in the running of the organization when management and employee relationship hindered. Examples of such situations are as follows.
  1. When the employees disobey some rules of behavior in the organization and this is referred to as employee indiscipline. This includes the employees’ slow performance and grievances, absenteeism and change of employees’ behavior. In such situations, the organization must some steps so that the employees’ behavior becomes consistent with the managerial expectations.
  2. The employees on the other hand depend on the organization for their safety in the working environment, proper incentives, fair treatment, needs for satisfaction and participation in decision making. Once, the management fails to meet such expectations, then the situation is termed as employee grievance.
  3. Sometimes the employees also fail to meet their organizational expectations in terms of personal performance, careers, goals, self respect etc, and this is referred to as employee stress. This may as well occur in terms of excessive workload, peer pressure, unreasonable use of nature of the job, authority by management, lack of opportunities of promotion among others.
In order to enhance employee behavior and satisfaction in an organization, the above issues should be well tackled and in time before the situation worsens where the organization may end up failing (Organ, 1997, p85). Good disciplinary culture should be emphasized, appropriate re-addressing system to settle grievances and proper management of strategies to minimize or manage employee stress.

Improving employee relations

All organizations must work to strengthen the employee relations and behavior and this can be well done by following the following important points (LePine, Ere, & Johnson, 2002, p65).

I. The management must ensure fair and just treatment of the employee. Hence, all employees in an organization must be treated as individuals and in a fair manner. This ensures there is no employee favoritism.

II. The employee job should be interesting to them, not monotonous. It should be more challenging done by issuing great responsibilities to employees or involving them in training programmes III. There must be a proper and continuous interaction between the management and the employees where they are informed regularly concerning the organizational procedures, policies and decisions. IV. There must be a motivation factor where the employees are rewarded for job well done or for certain achievements. V. Persuade employee feedback where they are aware of the employers concerns to them as well as knowing their views concerning the employer or the leaders. VI. The employees should be issued with competitive salaries where they are fairly paid according to their skills and talents as well as competencies. VII. The employer must be friendly and free with the employees though not over-friendly.

Importance of employee motivation in management organizational behavior

Nature and importance of employee motivation

It should be clear that many managers and scholars having been trying to find out why there are some employees in an organization who tend to work harder than others. The motivational study helps them come up with the best understanding of discrepancy in performance. Moreover, the managers tend to employ the knowledge of motivating employees that helps them improve the performance of these employees. There is no doubt that the employees are essentially the crucial aspect of an organization (Houmanfar, Herbst & Chase, 2003, p60). Several managers fight to motivate their employees in order to encourage them to perform at their highest performance levels. Once the employees are dedicated to their work, have regular attendance and continue impacting positive contributions to the organization, there is no doubt that the business will be able to yield more profit by cutting costs which is the ultimate aim of any organization (Roman & Boyce, 2001, p90). In order to enhance the performance of the organization in terms of high yield and profit generation, it is important to consider the following components or influential factors of motivating the employees. Puts human resources into actions All concerns in organizations need human, physical and financial resources to meet the goals of the organization. Human resources can only be utilized through motivation by making full use of it. This also ensures the enterprise makes the best use of the available resources. Improves level of efficiency of employees Let it be clear that the employee or subordinate level does not only rely on his or her abilities, skills and qualifications, it also depends on the willingness of an individual (Roman & Boyce, 2001, p85). Thus, in order to improve the level of performance of an organization, the gap between willingness and abilities of an individual must be filled. This result to-
  1. Minimizing the operational cost
  2. Maximizing productivity and
  3. Modifying the overall efficiency
  4. Leads to achievement of the organizational targets
The following factors must be achieved for an organization to meet its goals: 1)      Co-operative working environment 2)      Excellent resource utilization 3)      Co-ordination and co-operation must take place and this can happen best if there is motivation 4)      Employees must act in a purposive manner and be goal-directed 5)      Builds friendly relationship Motivation is very essential because it leads to employee satisfaction.  This can be done best by coming up with an inducement plan for the employees benefit. When this is done, it initiates the following things ((LePine, Ere, & Johnson, 2002, p65):
  • Employees promotional opportunities
  • Monetary and non-monetary inducements
  • Disincentives for the unsatisfactory employees
When the manager considers the above steps, he or she is able to build a pleasant, friendly atmosphere that would help in:
  • Minimizing the   unrest and industrial disputes in employees
  • Effective co-operation that leads to stability of the organization
  • Employees will be able to adapt the changes without resistance
  • Smooth and sound concern that makes the individual interests to coincide with the interests of the organization
6)      Leads to stability of the work force From the goodwill of a concern and reputational point of view, the workforce stability is very essential. In order of the employees to feel contented and loyal to the organization, they must be given a chance to participate in management. The employees’ skills and abilities will be of great advantage to the organization as well as the employees who will feel satisfied with the organization. This in turn makes the organization very competent in the market field and this attracts    professionals and qualified individuals into concern. This comes as a result of motivational factor and it is where the concept of ‘old is gold’ comes in because the more people become old, the more the gain experience and their concern adjustment becomes a benefit to the organization as well (LePine, Ere, & Johnson, 2002, p65). We can wind up by saying that motivation is crucial for both the business and individuals because it will help the individual achieve his personal goals and will attain job satisfaction whereby the organization will be very successful and competent in the market field. The employee motivation is supported by the motivator-hygiene theory or the two factor theory which states that the hygiene and motivation factors drives an individual into job satisfaction which is the key concept that leads to great performance and organizational success.

Importance of employee satisfaction in management of organizational behaviors

Job satisfaction refers to the ability of an individual to be content with his or her job. The happier an individual is at the working place or with his or her job, the more satisfied the person is said to be. Let it be clear that although job satisfaction is linked to motivation or aptitude, they are not similar. The design of the jobs targets to influence job performance and satisfaction (Hyten, 2002, p303). The methods of job design include job re-engineering, job enrichment, job enlargement and job rotation. Job satisfaction is a very crucial feature that is measured by the organization frequently. It is also important for the employees because once an individual is satisfied with what he or she does, and then the person will be committed to his or her work in the organization and will work very hard to meet the goals of the organization. Such an individual will never wish to leave the organization for another; he or she will wish to carry out the whole of his or her career in the organization. Such individuals should be maintained and frequently motivated in order to increase their job performance and experience that benefits the organization. The best an ordinary measurement technique of job satisfaction is by using the rating scales where the employees report their reactions to their jobs frequently (Houmanfar, Herbst, & Chase, 2003, p63). There are various theories supporting job satisfaction as a factor of management of organizational behaviors. These include the following. There is the Affect theory that was established in 1976 by Edwin A. Locke’s Range and it is considered as the most popular job satisfaction model. The main concept in this theory is that job satisfaction is decided by the inconsistency between what an individual has in a job and what the individual wants in a job. It further explains that the degree to which an individual values the work moderates how satisfied or dissatisfied an individual becomes once the expectations are or are not met. The disposal theory is also another well-recognized job satisfaction theory that was established by Jackson April in 2007.  The theory states that individuals have got inherent nature that makes them to have tendencies toward some level of satisfaction in their organizations regardless of the type of job an individual does. This theory was like an improvement or modification of Timothy A. Judge’s model established in 1998 that stated that character or nature is determined by four main self-evaluation factors that lead to job satisfaction (Roman & Boyce, 2001, p85). These are self esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy and neuroticism. The other theory is the two factors/ motivator-hygiene theory by which states that dissatisfaction and satisfaction are enhanced by distinct factors majorly by motivation and hygiene factors. The last theory in this category is the job characteristic model by Hackman and Oldham states that job characteristics impact on the results or outcomes of the job and this include the job satisfaction. It suggests five main job characteristics that influences job satisfaction; skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback.

Summary

The performance of the organization largely depends on the performance and results of the employees. Their commitment and satisfaction of the employees are very crucial components that determine the level of performance of an organization. This is because once they have positive attitude towards their work and their leaders, then they will be committed to what they does and be able to impact positive outcomes. However, their commitment and satisfaction depends on their leaders’ capabilities and level of emotional intelligence. Good leaders will always motivate their employees in one way or the other and influence them to produce positive results. Therefore, an organization must have leaders who are able to influence their employees to be committed and behave well in terms of their relationships as well as make then feel satisfied with the organization.

Chapter 2

Analysis of emotional intelligence (EI) in management of organizational behaviors

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the skill, an ability or EI model in the case of character, a self-recognized ability to discover, measure and control the emotions of one, groups and of others. Several models and descriptions have been established of which the character EI models and ability are the most broadly recognized in the scientific literature. However, there are some criticism that have come and have edged on whether the concept is a real intelligence and whether it has a strong truth on IQ and the five main personality dimensions. There is no doubt that emotional intelligence brings overabundance of negative feelings, like anger, anxiety, fear and hostility that makes an individual to use a lot of energy, minimize the morale, absenteeism, indifference and work as hindrance to collaborative efforts at workplace in most organization. It should be clear that negative emotions brings about negative energy, revenge, anger, bitterness or sometimes discomfort to the people we feel they are against us. Positive emotions on the other hand, is the key factor to positive energy since it is well displayed in the  enthusiasm of coming up with a vision, designation of a new product or even becoming victorious in a football match (Petrides & Furnham, 2000, p320). The expansion of the existing knowledge is always accelerated by the occurrence of guesses, hunches and instinct. One of the major factors that occurs as a result of persistent on the leaders time is the desire to move away from the emotional factors and to remain closely to  as it can be to the kingdom of intellect and facts to treasure the things that can only be analyzed, ordered, rationalized, dealt with, handled, controlled and contained. Nevertheless, study shows that emotions when are carefully handled or controlled, can inspire trust, commitment, loyalty as well as leading to several greatest gains in productivity, accomplishment of individuals, organizations and teams  and innovations. It is possible to strap up or control emotion and once it is done there is the possibility to increase the motivation of work and employees, influence customer service and work performance.

The benefit of emotional intelligence (EI) in management of organizational behavior

According to the research done, there is a big connection between the profitability in an organization and the way the employees feel about their colleagues, job and the enterprise. The best decisions made in an organization or institution greatly depends on the emotional intelligence other than the IQ or raw brain power alone. This also leads to organizational growth as well as more successful and satisfying lives. The research also shows that 80 percent of an individual work success relies on emotional intelligence whereby the dependency on IQ is only 20 percent. Once the organization decides to enhance a teamwork environment at the workplace, they are urging the employees for passion and commitment in order for them to fetch their hearts and brain as well as their emotions to what they are doing.  Once the organization puts its concentration on emotion, there is a lot of time saved, focus energy for great outcomes and increase opportunities as proved by the study (Nielsen, Hrivnak & Shaw, 2009, p555).  For example, most of the rising stars that have arisen fail frequently not because of technical inability but due to interpersonal flaw. Some of the worst flaws ever experienced include the emotional failings like being authoritarian, poor working relations having troubles with upper management often and being too ambitious. Therefore, there is no doubt that the higher a manager moves in any organization the more crucial emotional intelligence becomes since the relationships that this person build up becomes very important to him or her. The managers of an organization can have massive influence on the employees. According to the study done, the managers who posses high emotional intelligence can influence the employees to bring out outcomes exceeding the normal expectations. The five component of emotional intelligence that the managers and employees must understand in order to improve their relationships are as follows.
  1. Self-awareness or recognition: whereby an individual identifies and names his or her own emotions, understands what causes them and recognizes the difference between feelings and actions.
  2. Self-regulation: this is where an individual establishes the ability to stand humiliation, manager anger and to meditate upon a judgment before taking any action.
  3. Motivations: this is where an individual has the passion for the job beyond status or money and has the tendency to chase the targets with persistence.
  4. Empathy:  it is where a person has the capability to take in the emotional make up of other individuals and has the technique to perform the necessary action according to the emotional reactions
  5. Social skills: it is where the individual possess proficiency in establishing and managing relationships and is capable to come up with an ordinary ground and build rapport.
Once both the employees and managers have established their emotional intelligence, the managers will contain a workforce that is able to indulge with passion and the employees will have managers who are welcoming to their ideas and needs. There was a research done by Rahim and Minors (2003) where the three categories of emotional intelligence were tested (self-awareness, self-regulation and empathy) to the managers concerning the quality of services and products as well as the problem-solving behavior of employees incase conflict occurs. The outcome of the study showed that problem solving is positively linked to the self-awareness and self-regulation while self-regulation alone was positively linked with quality concern. Empathy also had a significant effect on quality as well as an effect of interaction of empathy and self-regulation. Therefore, the outcomes shows that the supervisers who have low emotional intelligence may be issued with suitable training concerning it that will improve their problem solving and quality concerns. Thus, emotional intelligence is very essential for both employees and managers if the organization has to be successful in all aspects (Meyer & Allen, 1991, p71). Those who are noted to have low emotional intelligence should be trained on it to improve the performance of the organization. Let it be clear that in order to increase the efficiency of production and quality of products and or services in an organization, emotional intelligence must be well associated with employee commitment, employee behavior, motivation and satisfaction. Therefore, all the managers must possess the EI in order to meet the needs of their employees as they offer the best in turn.

 The influence of emotional intelligence on employee commitment, behavior, motivation and satisfaction as an enhancement of management of organizational behavior

Employee commitment is a determinant for the organizational success. Individuals who are committed to their organizational work should experience more success in terms of their personal contentment with their job and impressing the organizational management. This can only happen when an individual has a positive attitude towards what he or she does and this is what is termed as emotional intelligence. Once an individual has emotional intelligence, he or she will be working with a certain target. Most of the time individuals work to fulfill personal goals but an individual with emotional intelligence will always work to achieve both organizational and personal goals because they normally coincide and become consistent (Gilbreath & Harris 2002, p330). There is no doubt that people who have positive feeling concerning their jobs are the people who mostly gets committed to their works and do not wish to leave the organization where they are as they want to fulfill their careers in the organization. Therefore, people high on emotional intelligence will most likely to be more committed to their work in the organization than the individuals with low emotional intelligence. For example, individuals who are more self-aware emotionally are most likely to perfect their jobs with an aim of meeting their personal needs, values and interests. This mostly happens with the employees who have a career in the job they are doing because before they chose such careers, they were interested in them meaning that they are enjoying what they are doing. Once an individual enjoys what he or she is doing the person will do it to his or her level best and this is what contributes to commitment and emotional intelligence. People who are just working for money without careers in what they are doing, they tend to get bored with their work at some point because they do not enjoy what they are doing thus they cannot be committed to it. Emotional intelligence is essential for the managers and leaders to control the organizational behavior of the employees and enhance great performance (Law, Wong & Chen, 2005, p65). The key issue is to create a good relationship among the workers and their managers. The managers can only influence employees’ emotions and moods if they have knowledge about the structure of mood exhibit. The structure states that once an individual has a high negative effect, he or she is likely to be upset, stressed up, tensed and or nervous about the operations in the organization and the managers. An individual who has high positive affect will mostly be alert, elated, excited and happy with the happenings in the organization or the operational systems together with the management. Individuals with low negative effect in an organization are always relaxed, content, Serene and calm. They normally do not speak much but do a lot of wonderful work as they communicate more through actions than words. Employees with low positive affect will tend to be bored, ever fatigue, depressed and sad with what they are doing and with the organizational operations. Such individuals usually have negative attitudes towards the organization and they cannot be contented with what they does (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002, p65). Therefore, the managers should be familiar with this structure of mood exhibit that defines people in the organization. Once they know certain people possess negative affect and low positive effect, they should be much close to them and build good relationships with them, try to educate them on importance of being committed to their work or influence them to change their attitudes.  Such individuals can as well be motivated once they know the importance of being committed to their work in order to accelerate their performance. Thus, emotional intelligence plays a major role in leading individuals in an organization hence enhancing change in attitudes, relations, commitment and performance. Leaders who possess emotional intelligence will always have one major strategy. The strategy where the organization employ a reward method on new, innovative ideas or excellent effort and performance that lead to achieving the goals of the enterprise (Organ, 1997, p92). This is done by having surprise celebrations or get-togethers where all individuals in the organization gather together and have the awardee standing up and they clap for him or her. They are they issued with an appreciation token like a gift certificate or small bonus or a trophy or something else that may seem motivational. This event should be done very publicly and awards being given publicly where everyone recognizes what the recipient did that deserved recognition. It will make the other individuals to work harder in order to receive the award on the next occasion. Now, if everybody in the organization will be working that hard to win the award on the next celebration or get together, then it means the performance of the organization will go up since all the employees will have become committed to their works. Therefore, motivation is a key element in organizational success and the way it is done depends on the managers level of emotional intelligence. Thus, the managers need to have very high intelligence to capture the attention of the employees and make them work for organizational success (Kluemper, 2008, p1402). Emotional intelligence has a concept on self-awareness, self- regulation and management of emotions. Employees’ satisfaction begins on the way they view the organization and their attitudes towards the operations in the organization. Self-awareness leads to identification of all this concepts and helps an individual in understanding what he aims at and how he or she can help the organization meet its goals. This is what brings commitment and satisfaction. Once an employee identifies him or herself, then the person can decide to accomplish his or her career in that certain organization and this happens when the person is fully contented with the management, operations and the way the organization meets its goals (Gilbreath & Harris, 2002, p331). It is also influenced by the way the employees are treated and motivated in the organization. Therefore, emotional intelligence is of much help to both employees and managers in enhancement of organizational behaviors and performance.

The concept of emotional intelligence as brought out by Salovey and Mayor

According to their book on emotional intelligence, the two define EI as the ability to examine personal and feelings of others as well as their emotions to discriminate among them and to employ this information to guiding personal thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p189). Emotions are of much help in guiding goal oriented actions and logical thinking meaning that they can enhance rationality as Salovey and Mayer implies in their definition of emotional intelligence.

Conceptualization of emotional intelligence by Salovey and Mayer

The article contains an illustration that conceptualizes emotional intelligence showing that it has three main branches; appraisal and expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and utilization of emotion. Under the last branch (utilization of emotion), they adds on four other categories whereby each of the categories contains one way of emotion utilization (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p200). These are creative thinking, flexible planning, redirected attention and motivation. They listed many researches that show how working with emotions can facilitate the mentioned skills. There is no doubt that this type of research is of great essence for emotional intelligence in the management and running of activities in the organization.

Complexity of emotional intelligence

When an individual possesses emotional intelligence, he or she is able to tackle emotions in the path towards growth as an individual and as part of the organizational workforce. Emotional intelligence uses self-regulation to appreciate the fact that provisional emotional restraints or hurt feelings is most important in the service of a greater target (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p201). Painful or hurtful emotions should not be viewed as inherently useless but as a requirement for personal growth. According to the philosophical point of view, the extent to which joy and happiness are felt is the same extend to which an individual is able to feel pain and sadness. Salovey and Mayer gave an example of an individual who helps others for a long period and at some points, self-sacrifice is required while emotional patience is sometimes required in the short-term period (Meyer & Allen, 1991, p77). During the short-term period, the situation may not be soothing for that individual to undergo the emotional challenges and sacrifices but at the end when the person helped comes out successful, this person may change the negative feeling of the experience into a positive aspect or at least alter the experience wholly into one of value and personal meaning. Therefore, individuals possessing emotional intelligence excellently recognize their emotions and employ, sophisticated, integrated tactic to control them as they move toward essential goals (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p208). The individuals with emotional intelligence see the dwarf situation in organizations as a bigger picture unlike others who view such situations as a very difficult concept that makes most people fail. There are two major aspects of emotional intelligence that should be understood well. First, emotional intelligence refers to utilization of all emotions intelligently, be it painful ones or happy one to meet greater goals (Nielsen, Hrivnak & Shaw, 2009). This is very useful to personal growth and development thus we need to learn to work with and not against our emotions. It should be clear that emotions are just irrational to the extent their belief systems, underlying and assumptive networks mirror illogical thought. The second meaning of intelligence is going on board on the path of self-actualizing. This is what entails emotional intelligence; individuals who have established skills linked to emotional intelligence  identifies and expresses their personal emotions, recognizes others’ emotions, controls affect and employs emotions and moods in motivating adaptive behaviors. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990,  p200). The importance of working with our emotions is that we naturally enjoy the benefits of understanding ourselves well more closely. This helps people to make wiser decisions in life by tightening the response ability to everything that takes place.

Popularization of emotional intelligence by Goleman

Goleman is responsible for popularizing the aspect of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1995 in his book that became very famous in tackling the emotional intelligence. His definition has suppressed and displaced the original definition of emotional intelligence that was done by Mayer and Salovey in the public imagination (Leuner, 1966, p197). After undertaking study in psychology, neurophysiology and cognitive science, Goleman came up with the following observations:
  • Reptilian brain which is part of human brain (it has same functions to those of reptiles) is responsible for performing most of the human emotional response processes. In case of a flight-or-attack response, the response usually occurs automatically when triggered by threatening situations. Individuals have evolved in such a manner whereby ‘neural-hijacking’ occurs issuing an immediate answer to critical situations in life.
  • Humans have their reptilian brain connected to the neocortex, which is able to exert some domination over the great automatic responses or the reptilian brain.
  • The amount of manipulation has an inherited factor, though an individual can learn to manage emotions to certain extent. Several individuals come to understand this at some point. Moreover, honing the skills is very possible together with attaining extensive abilities to control emotions.
  • There is no strong association between success in life and the intelligence quotient (IQ) though most opinions of people relate success with the IQ. However, Goleman stack to the fact that success is greatly linked to emotional intelligence.
This clearly shows the importance of emotional intelligence because its response in the brain is very quick. Goleman went further to put emotional intelligence into five emotional competencies. These are as follows (Petrides & Furnham, 2000, p313).
  • Self-awareness: the ability to identify a feeling as it occurs is crucial to emotional intelligence. If people are unable to recognize their emotions, they can be overpowered by these strong feelings.
  • Managing emotions: it is the ability to control emotions or to move undesirable emotional states to sufficient ones.
  • Self-motivation: inspire the completion of any kind of a goal is the capability to assemble our emotions in hunt for that end. Emotional control is very important and skills like creative task, mastery and focus are also essential.
  • Recognizing emotions of others: the skills of individuals are founded on the empathy capacity and the capability to stay focused to other people’s emotions. Empathy lights up altruism and lies at the core of professionals who deals with caring for others like management, teaching and the arts of healing.
  • Handling relationships:  the effectiveness of an individual depends on his or her ability to control the emotions of other individuals. Lack of leadership skills and social competence makes several innovations and brilliant projects and ideas to pass unnoticed.
According to Goleman, one key factor of controlling emotions involves indulging into drive-to-achieve state of emotion. These three abilities always lead to the fourth one when applied to other individuals. The fourth one is; to read and influence other people’s emotions positively. All the four abilities lead to engaging and maintaining good relationships. Emotions are always in existence because people usually feel something. All organizations in the world reward individuals on being rational without regarding being emotional. However, there is no doubt that emotions exists even in most rational of decisions.

Comparison of Goleman’s and Solevey and Mayer’s schools of emotional intelligence

Goleman popularized the concept of emotional intelligence by expanding the notion of intelligence by showing that the essential skills in life are self-control, persistence, zeal and the capability to motivate oneself. Goleman focused on influencing the way people educate their selves and children. Compassion and self-restraint are the depended issues in people’s communal and ethical life as well as the skills connected to emotional intelligence (Leuner, 1966, p197). Emotional intelligence is totally different from IQ because it is cultivated and smoothened throughout life while intelligence quotient (IQ) is an absolute that people are born with. Goleman’s work is very crucial in the society and shapes the way our culture views emotions. Note that he only borrowed the term emotional intelligence from Salovey and Mayer and expounded on it using scholarly studies to build upon his ideas. The two professors, John Mayer and Peter Salovey began writing about the concept of emotional intelligence in late 1980s where they argued that intellect and emotions are said to be opposite to each other and they wanted to find out why it was so and the consequences of beneficial interaction between the two (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p201). According to the two professors, strong emotions could even make people to think more rational than profound. They then implied this concept and argued that the intelligence motivated by deep emotions referring to emotional intelligence- can make the difference between an active innovation and conventional decision. They went ahead to suggest that the EI makes people to reason out more creatively and employ emotions in solving problems. Goleman was given the permission to use “emotional intelligence” by the two authors and went forward to expand on it in several ways. Just like Mayer and Salovey, Goleman was also interested in relations of intellect and emotions. However, Goleman reasoned like a science writer and not like an academician or a scholar by generalizing the concept from a wide range of data begin with the brain where all the information is decoded and responded to.  He issued out neurological evidence showing that the prefrontal brain lobes and the amygdale are liable for emotional responses in the brain while the rational thinking mind depends on the neocortex and limbic structures. This made him to reason out that individuals have two minds, two brains two different intelligent types: rational and emotional (Meyer & Allen, 1991, p81). He winded up by arguing that the emotional intelligence of a person is as crucial as the intellectual capability in life. According to my personal view, there is no doubt that the concept was well brought out and well explained by Goleman than the way it was done by Salovey and Mayer. This is because Goleman expounded on the idea greatly by involving all kinds of research concerning the emotions of people and how useful they are to people. his conclusion was that rational and emotions are very crucial elements of emotional intelligence of a person and it determines the person’s capabilities and abilities in terms of performance, skills and knowledge. Therefore, this is the best and true picture of what emotional intelligence is. His conclusion was that emotional intelligence is more important than Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Thus, this is the recommended work that a person can refer to when he or she wishes to learn more about emotional intelligence because it is very clear and straight to the point with full evidence and illustrations.

Transformational leadership in fostering employee commitment, behavior, motivation and satisfaction

Note that transformational leadership is the best linkage of emotional intelligence and the primary components of an organization like employee commitment, behaviors, motivation and satisfaction. Leadership is always regarded as the most essential element in the initiation and implementation of any necessary transformations in enterprises (Simic, 1998, p55). The leaders of an organization must adopt the system of transformational leadership if they wish to stimulate positive influence in an organization. This is because transformation brings positive change to an organization and is only possessed by leaders who have emotional intelligence, who can fight all the challenges and come out successful. In order to influence change, the leaders in an organization must be change centered (Geller, 2001, p75). They need to stress on the need of having clear aims and targets and be able to motivate the workers to follow that target. Brilliant performance is only able to occur by transforming attitudes, motives and values from a lower to a higher level of arousal and maturity. The transformational leadership is relatively associated to the level of effort the followers are willing to apply in job performance, perceived effectiveness and the leaders’ satisfaction. The ability of a leader to think big, inspire individuals and meet their requirements is appropriate ways of running an organization by the leaders. Having suitable content and integrity can impose positive change. Transformational leadership arouses higher employee commitment to the organization by increasing the trust of the workers in an organizational citizenship and behaviors. Therefore, transformational leadership and emotional intelligence are consistent in imposing change in an organization and leading to success of all the organizational processes.

Comparison of theorists’ positions on transformational and transactional leadership

There are several theories that focus on leadership but here are some of the theorists who talked precisely about the transactional and transformational leadership. First, there was Cox who organized the two types of leadership into two main categories: transactional and transformational leadership meaning that initially they were one thing. However, the main distinction between the two categories of leadership were made Downton (1973 as cited in Barnnet, McCormick & Conners, 2001, p108) but the idea was not that famous as it gained very little value until James McGregor Burns (1978) published his work on political leaders. His distinction was that the ordinary (transactional) leaders exchanged physical rewards for loyalty and works of the followers and extraordinary (transformation) leaders who fitted into places with followers, concentrated on higher order inherent requirements, and increased consciousness about the implication of precise results and new techniques in which those results can be met. The concept of transformational leadership was further build on by Bernard Bass who is an eminent organizational behavior professor at the State University of New York (Binghampton). He disagreed with Burns’ conception of transformational and transactional leadership as being opposite to continuum. (Barnett, McCormick & Conners, 2001, p108; Cox, 2001, p98). His argument was that the two categories of leadership are distinct issues and that good leaders demonstrate the features of both. (Judge & Piccolo, 2004, p755). Therefore, Bernard Bass is the person who brought out the leadership concept clearly that was well understood by several people.

Summary

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability is a self-recognized ability to measure, discover and control the emotions of individual, groups and of others. When comparing emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient, EI is very crucial in organizational success. Emotional intelligence comprises of five major components which include self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, social skills and motivation. There are several individuals and theorists who talked about  the concept of emotional intelligence. The most famous ones and individuals who tackled the issue initially were Salovey and Mayer in their book referred to as ‘Emotional Intelligence’ that was published in 1990 (Meyer & Allen, 1991). They were the first people to prove the existence of emotional intelligence and to give evidence of its importance to organizational success. Galoman improved on the topic and popularized it by expounding on the idea by introducing the scientific literature of the concept after carrying out several researches. Therefore, in order to enhance business operation and performance, the organizational employees and managers or leaders have to possess emotional intelligence.

Summary

Hodges University is the best place to pursue studies especially concerning leadership and the organizational management because it has the best tutor who offers simple and detailed explanations that are very clear and well understood. Throughout the study, the students have been able to acquire a lot of knowledge concerning leadership and this has been of much help especially in completion of this project (Geller, 2001, p112). There are several concepts that were taught but the ones that came out clearly were the concepts of organizational management behaviors and its impact on the organizational success where there was a clear illustration of how good and transformational leadership coupled with emotional intelligence can foster employee commitment, employee behaviors, motivation and satisfaction. Once these aspects are met, then it is very clear that the organization will be very successful and competent in the business field. Therefore, Hodges University is one place that most students will never forget at all and they will leave to admire especially after they become successful in the concepts of leadership in the outside world. This project has come out successful due to the good lectures and the in-depth description of leadership concepts.