Management is defined as the science of controlling or directing people/resources in a group in accordance with already established principles or values. On the contrary leadership refers to the process of setting a new direction and/or vision in order for members of a group herein workers to follow (Morden, 2004). By and large, leadership and management are necessary bed fellows in as far as organizational success is concerned, according to , leadership is a facet of management, a basic principle that guides a successful manner to achieve desired results.
Primarily a manager plays the role of maximizing an organization’s output through administrative implementation, this implies that at the core of every successful organization, a manager has five major roles clearly stated as organization, planning, staffing, directing and controlling. There are major distinctions between leadership and management in an organization, primarily, the major difference arises in terms of perspective, whereas a leader thinks radically, managers think incrementally, this implies that leaders use their intuition and passion in ensuring organizational success while managers use the rules set in t he company policy to run an organization, it goes without saying that in this regard, managers always aim at doing things right while leaders normally do the right thing. Normally, a manager has subordinates who work for him, this means that he does not easily link with the junior staff; he is deemed as the most authoritative person in organization whose word is law (Morden, 2004). The first major difference is that a leader is part of the team while a manger rules. In this regard, a manager may not necessarily possess leadership skills but simply because of his long term duty for a company as well as his loyalty that may have necessitated his promotion to the position.
A leader on the other hand may lack organizational skills, but posses a great deal of command through his vision that normally rallies people behind him. A leader is also the link between junior staff and the administration, they intend to integrate facet s of the organization in order to achieve effectiveness, this is in the belief that unity is strength, they tend to show personal interest in team mates, the manager o the hand sits at the helm of the management and lacks time to mingle with the employees (Lock, 2007).. More often than not, a manager’s work is hectic and involves running up and down in order to facilitate a company’s activities, Quite frequently the manager are work – they are somewhat busy with petty things thereby lacking time to address major issues in the organization, it is at this point in time that leaders will put in their concerted effort to ensure that effectiveness is achieved through encouraging and nurturing team work, insisting on the value of time management as well as proper use of power. Further, leader provides and adequate reward structure to encourage performance of employees. Leader delegates authority where needed and invites participation where possible to achieve the better result. He also provides the workers with necessary resources. By communicating to workers what is expected of them, leader brings effectiveness to organization. The above functions of the leader are by no means comprehensive but they do suggest as to what leaders do generally (Jeston and Nellis, 2006) In differentiating management from leadership, it should be noted that the major differences are only of kind, for instance, they are a matter of difference in vision and judgment or effectiveness viz a viz efficiency. In this regard, a manager maintains a company’s culture while a leader develops new and innovative ways that may be of benefit to the organization. A manager always concentrates on the systems and policy and structures of an organization while a leader will be interested in the human resource. A manager will also greatly on rely on his authority to run a company when a leader relies on trust developed in running an organization. In most cases, a manager lacks vision or has a short term vision for an organization whereas a leader has a long term vision that normally aims at taking the company to a whole new level, a manager in this regard is always interested in deadlines through asking questions such as when and what time whereas a leader will ask how and why. Whereas a leader is always challenging the status quo, a manager is comfortable with the status quo as long as everything appears okay.
According to Jeston and Nellis (2006) managers are people who are experienced in a specific field and through unmatched efforts, have climbed the ladder of a businesses’ management layers, they are very conversant with each layer of the system and more often than not, they possess good technical knowledge. Most often, they may lack leadership skills which business leaders possess in abundance, business leaders have fresh and new ideas though they most often lack the experience or wisdom that a manager has. It should be noted that different companies have different ways or strategies of management. For instance, in Coca Cola, Management Styles at Coca-Cola managers believe that the success of a company entirely depends on the kind of leadership that one will offer. It is this management that will either motivate or kill the morale of employees in an organization. Coca Cola has mastered three styles of management that has seen the company grow in leaps and bound over the last 118 years of its existence: these are autocratic, democratic and a laissez-faire style. It employs a leadership style that is purely democratic: where the general manager of the company is the senior most member of the organization’s hierarchy; in as much as he is not directly involved in the day to day running of the company; he is charged with the duty of taking major administrative decisions in terms of company policy and operations.
There are also departmental managers who primarily serve the function of directing their subordinates. Their main role as departmental managers involve increasing business through use of a co-ordinated approach where the mangers work closely with the employees to achieve full potential from each individual as well as encouraging innovativeness from the employees so as to maintain client satisfaction. It is only in the sales and marketing department where the concept of team management practiced, this is due to the simple fact that there is a lot of interdependence here where working individually may yield poor results. Even so, junior staff is treated fairly and are dealt with a lot of respect and mutual understanding so as to give them a sense of belonging. Coca Cola has culture of ‘hands off’ approach or otherwise known as laissez-faire. As long as the workers are meeting their targets or their Key Business Indicators, the management team will always embrace their relaxed mode of ensuring that business is after all run smoothly. The management of this company aims at fully utilizing individual workers potential, it fosters the spirit of refreshing ever one daily and it greatly appreciates the spirited nature of its employees, leaders in this company are determined to make every employee have positive mentality as well as unmatched passion in their work. According to Spedding and Rose (2007) Strategy is key in every company’s management. It is indeed important as indicated in this company’s management; they have well developed strategic workplace programs that are aimed at continuous success to the company’s commitment to embracing the diversity in people, cultures and ideas of its employees. The company has a Diversity Advisory Council consisting of representatives of employees from all levels of the organization. Its main purpose is to develop recommendations which the senior management will use in advancing the company's towards celebrating the unity in diversity objectives.
There are also Employee Forums which are basically forums aimed at creating a sense of community among the workers, this forum will further enhance employees and manager’s ability to “attract, retain, and develop” ideas and talent as key in creating competitive business advantage. Through the employee forums, employees usually connect and share ideas that will help them grow in t heir profession as well as advancing the company’s agenda Globalization is defined as the inter relation between people with different habits and cultures; on its face globalization is an asset in any given society (Culp, 2001). First and foremost, globalization creates an enabling environment for business with diverse customer requirements as well as satisfaction and cultural sensitivity. More often than not, one business cannot smoothly run without the assistance of other parties to a business, through globalization different businesses dealing with different products have benefited from each other, for instance, a supplier of a product may be poorly competitively priced furthermore, production functions as well as technology may not necessarily marry, as a result there must exist a very functional relation between countries and cultures s o as to facilitate business management. Globalization also has the advantage of homogenizing and converging an organization’s strategy, structure and processes and influencing customer choice.
The current acceleration in globalization has posed a great challenge to organizations, most have had to embrace the change as well as adopt new trends which have set in as far as Human Resource management is concerned, organizations have had to change their organization designs and structures which have led to downsizing in order to effectively work and improve output, it s negative effect is retrenchment and unemployment in many sectors (Lock, 2007). In conclusion, good business management and leadership are important tenets of a successful organization, it should also be noted that many businesses today are doing away with the traditional differences between a manager and leader. With many uncertainties rife in modern businesses, thanks to the ongoing global slowdown, managers now play a twofold role, which is management and leadership; a manager must possess great qualities of al leader including flexibility, innovativeness and team spirit as well. It is my humble opinion that managers and leaders should provide an enabling environment for business to thrive. Having understood the role of a manager and a leader as well as the theories that explain the differences, I recommend that business leaders and managers should employ democratic kind of leadership where appropriate as well as authoritarian leadership depending on the suitability of the style. I further recommend that for a business to thrive, managers and leaders should develop good and open communication channels between the management and the employees.
In my opinion, corporate strategy, which involves the overall image of a business as well as its goals in as a far as meeting customer requirements is concerned should take precedence over any other form of strategy, this is so because it is the main reason why a business exists, failure in maintaining corporate strategy means that a business is destined to fall. Operational strategy must also be encouraged, this refers to the way a business is organized so as to effectively deliver a company’s corporate strategy, it is more concerned with issues to do with the available resources, the processes involved in reaching the end result as well as the human resource involved, care should be taken by a company’s management to heavily invest o human resource since it is the core of a business organization (Culp, 2001).